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ایالات متحده آمریکا

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friendliness to the text which shows Tibetans brought to Colorado consider it as their homeland which bears a closer sense of affability than the word Tibet used by the translator. Since these people were taken there to be trained to take part paramilitary groups later, the translator used substitution strategy in using a less friendly word to show he is not sympathizing with them unlike the writer.

Table 4.11
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China.” (p.25)
Target Text
” چینیها تلاش فراوان به خرج دادند که ادعاهایشان را مبنی بر اینکه ایالات متحده آمریکا،…، مقادیر هنگفتی میکروب…، ثابت کنند.” (ص. ۲۸)

In the above paragraph the word the author used is “publicizing” which is different from “proving” which the translator used by alteration. The first has a lower effect than the latter. Also the writer used “quantities” not “massive quantities” added by the translator which once again is employed to represent the enormity of the situation.
Table 4.12
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
a Tudeh-sponsored demonstration was brutally suppressed by Mossadegh, resulting in some 100 deaths and 500 injured.” (p. 65)
Target Text
“تظاهراتی که حزب توده ترتیب داده بود به کشته شدن ۲۰ نفر و زخمی شدن ۵۰۰ نفر انجامید.” (ص. ۱۳۸)

What is mentioned in the original text is totally altered by the translator. In the original text it is obvious that Mosaddegh was partly responsible for the deaths of 100 people while in the target text there is no sign of Mosaddegh’s name in the text, moreover the number of people killed in the demonstration is mentioned as 20 which is one fifth of the source text. Also in translation the subject is demonstrated in a way that it is possible to consider that the people who are killed are from both sides while in the ST they are victimized by Mosaddegh. In aspect of technique used here this is kind of alteration and selection of a part from a whole.
Table 4.13
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“the proverbial communist takeover”(p. 64)
Target Text
” روی کار آمدن کمونیستهای تودهای”(ص. ۱۳۵)

The “proverbial” is used “when you describe something using part of a well-known expression”. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) so the translator by using substitution technique used the familiar term “The Tudeh” instead of “proverbial” to give specific information about a branch of communism in Iran which is known to everyone. In this way he could establish a better relation with the reader.
Table 4.14
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The various accounts of the CIA role in Iran have the Agency spending from $10,000 to $19 million to overthrow Mossadegh.” (p. 68)
Target Text
“… سازمان مبلغی بین ۱۰۰۰۰۰ تا ۱۹ میلیون دلار صرف براندازی مصدق کرد.” (ص. ۱۴۳)
The amount of money spent to overthrow Mosaddegh announced by CIA agents in the original text varies from $10,000 to $19 million but $10,000 in the ST is altered to $100,000 in the translated text. The reason is that the translator considers that the variation of numbers between $100,000 and $19 million is more reasonable than between $10,000 and $19 million. So in his view it is not logical that all the money has been spent on toppling a Prime Minister down equals to $10,000.
Table 4.15
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Love’s views, contained in a paper he wrote in 1960, may well have been inspired by information received from the CIA.” (p. 69)
Target Text
“احتمال میرود نظریهی لاو، در کتابی که در ۱۹۶۰ منتشر ساخت، …” (ص. ۱۴۵)

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It goes without saying that a paper in aspect of the amount of material it is covering is smaller than a book. Also usually a book’s value is higher than a paper’s. Bearing that in mind, the translator substituted “a paper” in the ST with “a book” in the TT to show that the amount of information that has been released against CIA by Love is more than it is mentioned in reality. Since this information is related to the interference of USA in other countries, the more the better.
Table 4.16
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Though sponsored by the Tudeh” (p. 69)
Target Text
“تظاهرات یاد شده را [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] جبههی ملی ترتیب داده بود” (ص. ۱۴۶)

The translator used two strategies in the above mentioned translation. Instead of “The Tudeh” in the ST he used ” “جبههی ملیor “National Front Party” in the TT which is a total substitution and also he employed explicitation in [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] or (aniiversary of 30th of Tir) to bring the demonstration closer to the mind of the Iranian Readers. Since he considered “National Front Party” more in line with the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran than “The Tudeh” and he deemed if there is a demonstration it is more appropriate for “National Front Party” to lead it, used it over “The Tudeh”.
Table 4.17
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“When to this is added a level of corruption that “startled even the most hardened observers of Middle Eastern thievery” (p. 71)
Target Text
“…. حتی پوستکلفتترین دزدان خاورمیانه را به شگفت میانداخت”(ص. ۱۵۱)

In the original text the word “observers” means the people who were watching closely the Middle Eastern thievery. In the translated text this word is changed to “thieves”. This substitution is employed to enlarge the magnitude of corruption in Iran to the extent that even thieves themselves are bewildered by that.

Table 4.18
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The payments to the ayatollahs and mullahs began in 1953 and continued regularly until 1977 when President Carter abruptly halted them.” (p. 71)
Target Text
“پرداخت پول به روحانینمایان …” (ص. ۱۵۲)

In the original text it is mentioned that CIA was bribing some “ayatollahs and mullahs” to give speech in favor of the USA. But in the translation the translator called them “fake clergymen”. This alteration by the translator is because Iran unlike many other countries is a country that clergymen take political roles in managing the country; this is to the extent that based on Iran’s Constitutional Law the person who is leading the country should be an ayatollah. For the reasons mentioned above, clergymen and ayatollahs are respected in Iran and the translator does not want to taint their titles by bribery.
Table 4.19
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The cut-off of funds to the holy men, it is believed, was one of the elements

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