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جنگ جهانی دوم، کودتای ۲۸ مرداد

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spy aircraft which could be regarded as the characteristic of American military power and its hegemony over the world; so it symbolizes power. It is black which can be a sign for suffocating hegemony of the USA after World War II over most part of the world and the black color is also aligned with the title of the book- Killing Hope. The fighter covers to the extent of 80 percent of the cover page foreground and the rest which is a-twenty-percent background shows a distant view of the earth. This devotion (80&20) by itself can illustrate that US has a large proportion of the earth under its power. The direction of the fighter represents the liveliness and the presence of the power.
On the whole, the composition of the elements of the cover page represented some kinds of power interrelated with lack of hope.
The USA, which fought in the name of peace and war with terrorism. Actually the USA, which shouts democracy and “hope” for every nation in the world now, is brought under the question of all he proclaims with the terms used in the title of the book, ”Killing Hope”. The USA which is supposed to bring ”hope” to nations is now killing it.
The blue color of the earth at the background symbolizes tranquility and peace. This might suggest to an observant viewer the USA’s fighting in the name of peace.
The large font of the main title and also that it is written all in capital makes it to become closer to the viewer and became the most dominant element in the cover page and hence might make the viewer more engaged in the idea behind the title. Moreover, the color of the letters is white which is supposed to represent peace but ironically the word “killing” is written in it. The words “US military & CIA” which are supposed to protect human rights and nation rights are also written in white along with “interventions” which brings a total paradox to the ground.

Table 4.2- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه
ALL THE SHAH’S MEN
ST
TT
Total Verbs
۴۷۵۰
۵۴۲۰
Actionals
۳۹۱۰
۳۹۶۰
Relationals
۸۴۰
۱۴۶۰
Passives
۲۶۰
۱۸۰
Total USA Related Usage
۳۲۶
۳۷۲
USA as a Direct Agent
۲۱۶
۲۴۸
Total Britain Related Usage
۴۹۳
۵۶۲
Britain as a Direct Agent
۳۸۸
۴۱۲

۴.۲.۳.۲ Analyzing the cover page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”

Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”

Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: an American soldier holding an M16 in hand → action: military power
– Background: a twilight → action: despair and wane
Typography title: – Down: ”ویلیام بلوم” in black and red
“مترجم: دکتر عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی” in white
” سرکوب امید” in a large white font
“(دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد)” in a small white font
” مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی” in a small white font
The US soldier holding an M16 standing at the foreground colored all black because he is standing between the viewer and the last remaining of the sunlight. The color of the soldier’s photo matches the color of the fighter on the cover of the original book. They both represent military power along with despair. The part that specifically covers the sun is the gun which without it the sunlight could reach the viewer. The diagonal position of the barrel of the gun can represent uncertainty of the soldier holding it or at least not being ready shoot. The twilight at the background can represent the last remaining hope to reach peace and freedom for those under the exploitation of the USA which without US military power reaching it is possible. Twilight along with the diagonal position of the gun can also symbolize the power of the USA on the wane. More than half of the page is colored red which brings to the mind of the viewer the color of blood which unlike the background color in the original book (blue) causes dread and insecurity.
The title of the book like the one in the original book is written in white and large font to bring the idea behind the topic closer to the viewer. The same paradox between the content of the title which is despair and the color of the letters which is white can be found in both the original and the translated books.
There are different types of fonts in Persian language but the one is selected here is more rigid than the regular smooth and flexible ones to demonstrate toughness of the idea behind it.
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street→ action: demonstration
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
Typography title: – Up: all in capital: All THE SHAH’S MEN
– Middle: all in capital: AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR
– Down: all in capital: STEPHEN KINZER
The photo that is covering half of the page seems to be taken from a group of people at the time of the Coup in Iran. The garlands around the pictures of the Shahs show these people are supporting the Shah. Since there were two groups at the time of the Coup: one supporting Mosaddegh, another supporting the Shah, the cover page seems to have lost one of them. In the middle of the page the “AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR” is written in red that is a proper choice because red brings blood and danger into the mind of the reader. Also the middle text like all letters on the cover is written in capital to enlarge the vastness of American crimes. At the top there is nothing but half a page in white which All THE SHAH’S MEN is written on it in large font and in black. Using black on white background at the top somehow represents the blackness of The Shah and “all the Shah’s men” ‘s character over the whiteness of pure Iran and the capitalization of the letters tries to magnify this blackness.

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۴.۲.۳.۴ Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”

Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street → action: demonstration.
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
– Up: a stamp of the Shah Mohammadreza → action:
Typography title: – Up: in black and large font: همهی مردان شاه and in smaller font and black under it کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاورمیانه
– Middle: written in white on a red background استیفن کینزر and under it ترجمه شهریار خواجیان
Since both the original and the translated book share the same image that covers half of the page what has been mentioned about the image of the cover page in the original book can be applied here as well; though,
there is a slight change at the top of the cover page. The color of the cover page at the top is gray that connotes ambiguity and vagueness and it also foreshadows blackness. It does not resemble the cover page of the ST that is black and white at the top. The stamp of the Shah nearly in the middle of the cover page and its position is of great importance. Using someone’s photo on a stamp represents permanence and stability. The Shah is wearing military uniform on the stamp which represents power at the same time the position of the stamp on the cover page is not upright which is demonstrating instability of Shah’s position in the country which can be an answer to those protecting The Shah in the image at the bottom of the page. Since the translator could not bring another image to represent both parties: those demonstrating for The Shah and those demonstrating for Mosaddegh, he employed the stamp to represent the latter party. Considering what has been mentioned so far, the cover page of the TT seems to encompass both parties, rather than the cover page of the TT which encompassed one of the two parties.

۴.۳ Macrolevel Analysis

۴.۳.۱ Translators’ judgments

At this level of investigation the translators’ judgments was scrutinized. The traces of translators’ ideological viewpoints could be found in preface to translations, footnotes, and endnotes thereof.
William Blum, the author of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” was a member of the Western community. The title he chose for his book at the first step suggested that there were some people out there whose hope is being killed by US military and CIA which at this level might include the Americans, the country or the states of the US. In this regard he is a political critic who describes the interventions of the USA in other countries in his book, briefly. The reason why he criticized US policy is different from that of the Iranian translator, because he is part of the Western culture. This meant that the Function of the texts in the receiver’s culture was different from that of the source culture. The author wrote the book not because he hated America or wanted to damage his own country but because he thinks in this way he is serving his country in a reformist manner.
On the other hand, the translated book was published in Iran which considered the USA as its most dangerous foe. America is the ‘great devil’ for Iranian official policy developers. In this different context the book’s function had changed to some extent. The TT did not have a constructive role as the original one but it followed a destructive role to darken the picture of the ‘greatest enemy’. Here the book and its translator were located in the culture of those people who might hate America, not that of ‘America’ which is the subject of hatred and that of the authors.
In the preface to the translated book which is published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” the Center of Islamic Republic Documents, one of the governmental dependant organizations, in Iran there are some statements like:
– زیادهخواهی آمریکاییان در سایر کشورها
– سیاهکاریهای ایالات متحده در ایران
– غارت ثروت ملی ایران
Which show the gravity of hatred from the perspective of the translator and the Center of Islamic Republic Documents which published the book and it is a representative of Iranian government. Moreover, sentences like:
– نویسنده به اوضاع داخلی کشورمان در عصر پهلوی و حمایتهای آمریکا از بزرگترین دیکتاتور منطقه بسیار کمتر پرداخته و فقط به مقتضای بحث در بخشهای مختلف کتاب به آن اشاره میکند.
– وقایع دوران نهضت ملی و چگونگی اجرای کودتای ۲۸ مرداد در بحث مستقل و نه

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