۳.۲- sample of strategy tables
Strategies Applied in the Books
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
Selection of Parts From Wholes
Total Number of Strategies
The third type of the tables were employed to manifest each case and its translation separately along with the strategy used in it.
Table 3.3- sample of each case’s table
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In the present chapter, each book specified in the corpus will be analyzed separately in a comparative study at the three levels of textual, paratextual and semiotic suggested by Farahzad (2007). At the textual level, the in-text strategies used by the translator in translation of the selected text from each book are analyzed for determining their ideological significance. At the paratextual level, any available footnote, endnote, foreword or introduction is analyzed. At the semiotic level, the cover image as well as any pictures or figures are analyzed for determining the ideological value and alignment with the dominant ideologies in Iran. These levels were carried out separately on the selected corpus element.
۴.۲ Microlevel Analysis
Regarding vocabulary in this research one question had been examined:
• Are there any words and expressions used in the metatext which are ideologically significant? What role do they play in their corresponding TT?
Concerning the book ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” this research took the word America and any other word which directly or indirectly was related to the USA as a key term, words like US, USA, Washington, George Bush and so on. The reason was that these words had an ideological importance in the target culture and the content of both books directly revolved around these terms. These words were repeated altogether 2127 times in the Source Text and 3320 times in the Target Text (Table 4.1). This showed that the ‘USA’ and all words and pronouns directly related to it had become more visible in the translated text. This became more important when some more data were collected to show the grammatical roll of these ‘USA-related words’. This is elaborated later in the research.
Considering the book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” two key words of ”USA” and all the words in relation to this word and also ”Britain” and all the words pertinent to it was considered to be investigated. This is because this book was totally dedicated to describe the pivotal role of the USA and Britain in overthrowing Mohammad Mosaddegh. The first key term (USA) was repeated 326 times in the source text and 372 times in the Target text. Repeating the word Britain and its related words 493 times in the source text depicts the role of Britain even stronger than America in the 1953 Coup in Iran which burned fifty years of effort to reach democracy into ashes. This word was repeated 562 times in the target text (table 4.2). Both key terms and the words related to them were repeated more than the times in the TT which illustrates that they become more visible in the eye of the translator.
In the second level of this research the grammar of the texts was scrutinized. This thesis focused on process types and agency and the voice of sentences to see whether they were active or passive. The questions in this regard were:
• What kinds of processes predominate in the ST and TT? Is agency unclear?
• How much percent of the sentences are active or passive in the Persian and English texts?
To find the answer to the first question, what was mentioned earlier in chapter two from Kress and Hodge about processes had been taken into consideration. Shortly, they categorize processes into two types: ”actionals” and “relationals”. Actionals are those verbs which indicate the actions. Relationals on the other hand are used to classify and attribute adjectives (1996: 39).
The corpus element selected from ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” contained 4483 verbs. 3868 Verbs were actionals and 615 were relationals. This gave an impression that the text emphasized more on actions rather than relations. The text was more in motion and it showed some processes were actually happening; rather than mere a description of a status.
On the other hand, in the TT there were 5014 verbs which 4179 of them were actionals and 835 relationals. This indicated that our TT was involved more in actions regarding the source text and actions had gained more emphasis. With this, the concept of agents became even more important to pay attention to (Table 4.1).
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 2127 uses of such words in the ST and 3320 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 1420 times while in the Target Text this became 1920(Table 4.1).this indicates that in the TT America was more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was criticizing the USA for its actions it became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the USA’s shoulders and had let the readers to blame US more easily.
Regarding the selected parts from the second book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” there were 4750 verbs on the whole in the source corpus, 840 of which relationals, 3910 and actionals.
This showed again that this text dealt more with actions rather than relations and attributions. Moreover in the TT there were 5420 verbs. 3960 Of them were actionals and 1460 were relationals (Table 4.2). The TT tended to actions rather than relations too. As it had been said most of the agents in both TT and ST were somehow related to America. So once again it became clear that in the TT the USA became more responsible for actions and as they were more related to abuses of power and evil deeds, the US more deserved to be blamed and condemned by readers.
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 326 uses of such words in the ST and 372 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 216 times while in the Target Text this became 248; moreover, the term Britain and its related words were repeated 493 times in the ST while they were repeated 562 times in the TT. In the ST these words played roles as direct agents for 388 times while the same words in the TT were appeared 412 times as direct agents (Table 4.2). This depicts that in the TT USA and Britain were more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was based on the fact that these two countries were directly responsible for the Coup to oust Mosaddegh in Iran It became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the shoulders of USA and Britain and had let the readers blame them more easily.
Table 4.1- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing
pe, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد
Total USA Related Usage
USA as Direct Agent
۴.۲.۲.۱ Passive Transformation
In ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” there were 584 passives which comparing the 4483 processes, had not been that important (around 12 percent). This showed that the writer had revealed causality process in his sentences and had avoided mystification. This was, by some means, in line with the critical tone of the writer who had investigated ”US military and CIA interventions since World War II”. In the target text, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”, there were 652 passives out of 5014 processes (around 12 percent). Again this showed the translator had not radically changed the voices of the verbs, regarding the total number of the processes in Persian. The translator, also, wanted the agents to be clear because through this technique the critical and denouncing positioning of the translator towards the USA became more unambiguous.
In the second book, “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”, the same trend was obvious There were 260 passives out of 4750 processes (about 6 percent of the total amount). In the translated text there were 180 passives out of 5420 processes (around 2 percent). These numbers showed that both the translator and author had chosen the anti-mystification strategy to show what the United States was performing in its ongoing relations with the rest of the world. But a delicate difference was evident in this book and its corresponding translation regarding the former book, i.e. passives had reduced by around 4 percents in the TT. It was already mentioned that the second book was entirely dedicated to show what America and Britain had done and were doing in their ongoing deeds inside and outside their borders and the majority of ‘agents’ directly or indirectly referred to the USA and Britain or their administrative institutions like CIA and MI6. By decreasing the number of passives, once again the USA and Britain became more responsible for its actions and evilness in the TT.
Unlike the author whose context was US community and may have taken some matters into considerations by not talking more vividly the translator was in a totally different context. He did not feel any problem to reveal whatever was regarded as bad deeds against America and Britain so they had used active mode more generously instead of passives.
۴.۲.۳ Cover page Analysis
۴.۲.۳.۱ Analyzing the cover-page of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”
Image 4.1- cover page of “Killing Hope”
Elements: images & words
Images: – Foreground: one fighter→ action: military power
– Background: a distant view over the earth → action: victimize
Typography title: – Up: William Blum, AUTHOR OF ROGUE STATE
– Middle: all in capital: KILLING HOPE
– Down: US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II
The aircraft in the multimodal text (image 4.1), i.e. cover page,