scholars go further and believe that all discourse is inherently multimodal, not monomodal. That is, language in use, whether it is in the form of spoken language or written, is inevitably constructed across several modes of communication, including speech and gesture not just in spoken language but through some ‘contextual’ phenomena such as the use of the physical spaces in which we carry out our discursive actions or the design, papers, and typography of the documents within which our texts are presented (Le Vine & Scollen, 2004: 1-2).
‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ attempts to study social meaning making through language and other semiotic modes such as image as Kress and Van Leeuwen state or music and sound according to Van Leeuwen (Le Vine & Scollen, 2004: 154).
In order to be able to communicate with semiotic signs other than linguistic texts ‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ is used to find the meaning of multimodal texts such as book cover pages which employ different modes like typography, images and colors.
Based on Farahzad’s Translation Criticism model (Bokhara, 2007, N. 62: 420-424)
۱. Translator’s Judgement
۲. Categorizations and Classifications
۳. Representation of Reality
۴. Power Relation
Moreover, the translation strategies are taken into account at this level. In this stage, the following items are scrutinized:
• Addition or Overwording
• Rearrangement of Sentence Elements
• Substitution / Alteration
• Selection of Parts from Wholes
Considering the above-mentioned history of CDA, it reveals that language has direct bearing on structuring power. In other words, it is in close relation to ideology and power. Furthermore, it is worthwhile to mention that language consists of linguistic elements which are themselves affected by social and cultural elements. This indicates the role of power in determining meaning. This study attempts to investigate two political works: “Killing Hope, US Military & CIA Interventions Since World War II” by Blum (2003) and “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” by Kinzer (2003) and their translations: “”سرکوب امید by Hooshang Mahdavi and “همهی مردان شاه” by Khavvajian at both micro-level and macro-level based on what mentioned in Farahzad’s model of translation criticism to disclose the hidden ideology and power or the hidden reality beneath the existent words. The researcher is supposed to bring these texts to close and detailed scrutiny. This research is going to underscore the use of verbs; whether they are chosen actively or passively, the use of modifiers like adjectives, adverbs, and phrases in describing people and places, and the like in the two aforementioned political works and their translations. This examination will be revealing some concealed hints in terms of the dominant ideology of these texts.
There are many different methods in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) investigations. these wide variety of theories, range from micro-sociological perspectives to theories on society and power, theories of social cognition and grammar, as well as individual concepts that are borrowed from larger theoretical traditions ( Meyer, cited in Wodak & Meyer, 2001 : 17).
The present chapter introduces the type of research, the corpus of the study, as well as the data collection and analysis method.
۳.۲ Restatement of Research Questions
This research tries to answer the following questions in the forthcoming chapters:
۱. To what extent does the translator change the ideological position of Blum’s “Killing Hope” with recourse to Farahzad’s Translation Criticism Model?
۲. To what extent does the translator change the ideological position of Kinzer’s “All the Shah’s Men” with recourse to Farahzad’s Translation Criticism Model?
۳.۳ Type of Research
This research is a corpus-based descriptive-explanatory comparative study of written texts between English and Persian languages.
As mentioned before, the corpora chosen are William Blum’s (2003) “Killing Hope US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II” translated by Abdorreza Hooshang Mahdavi (2009) as “”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” which reviews the destructive foreign policy of the U.S. in over fifty countries. The translation was published in Markaz-e Asnad-e Enghelab-e Islami (Center of Islamic Revolution Documents) in Iran which is affiliated to government Another book under detailed study is Stephen Kinzer’s (2003) ”All the Shah’s Men An American Coup and the Roots Of Middle East Terror” which is translated by Shahryar Khajian (2004) and entitled “”همه مردان شاه کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه. This book discusses the significant role of CIA in overthrowing Mossadegh, Iran’s prime minister and backing the 1953 Iranian coup d’état.
The corpus of the study was segmented into four parts: two source books mentioned in the last part and their translations. The data was collected based on the method described below and were analyzed for the purpose of determining the ideologically significant strategies. The dominant unit of analysis was sentence unless more than one sentence was required to make equivalence relation between corresponding units.
۳.۵.۱ Data Collection
The whole investigation revolved around applying Farahzad’s model of CDA to the chosen texts. Since CDA generally and Farahazad’s model of CDA specifically are mostly applied on political genre Both ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and their translations which are chosen to be investigated here fall under the category of political texts by critics. CDA demands the close analysis of these texts via the detailed examination of sentences in both the original books and the translated ones.
The first book under investigation which was ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” depicted the interventions of USA in 50 countries around the world. Since from among these 50 countries it was considered that the Asian, Middle Eastern, and Islamic countries were closer to the political views of the translator and his country, Iran, the countries which fit the criteria were selected. These parts of the book were scrutinized thoroughly line by line. Sentences which were altered during the process of translation were selected and the strategies applied to them were mentioned; moreover, the reason why these changes were applied in the TT was elucidated.
The second book under analysis was “All the Shah’s Men an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”. Regarding the mentioned book the whole ST and its corresponding translation were studied. The process of data collection for the second book was as it went previously for the first book.
During the investigation 30% of the whole sentences were rigorously examined by the advisor of the present research in order for the validity of the research to be fulfilled.
۳.۵.۲ Instrument and Data Analysis
Upon data collection, Farahzad’s 2007 CDA-based model of translation criticism was employed in a comparative analysis to analyze the translations, and to determine the possible ideological position of the translator. Farahzad’s model and the way it is applied on the aforementioned works are elaborated below:
Regarding the book Killing Hope words related to USA were considered as key terms. The researcher tried to look for the same words in the TT, to see how many times they were repeated in both texts. The results are represented in the next chapter. Also, the words related to both USA and Britain were searched in both Kinzer’s All the Shah’s Men and its corresponding translation همهی مردان شاه by Khavvajian.
What kinds of process predominate and what are their corresponding roles in the TTs? Is agency clear or not?
Are sentences active or passive and how are they rendered?
Regarding the above mentioned questions the total number of verbs in the book Killing Hope was mentioned. Then, the numbers of passive verbs versus active ones were calculated; afterwards, the number of actional versus relational verbs was calculated.
۳.۵.۲.۱.۳ Analyzing the Cover pages
An analysis of the cover pages of source text and target text was carried out based upon Multimodal Discourse Analysis.
۳.۵.۲.۱.۳.۱ Method of Analyzing Cover pages
At this level the cover-pages of the source texts and the target texts were analyzed thoroughly in the aspects of their images and words. Then, the elements analyzed in both cover-pages were compared to see how much they adapt to the content of each book. In this case the cover pages of Blum’s Killing Hope and its translationسرکوب امید by Hooshang Mahdavi which were considerably different went under scrutiny. Also the cover pages of Kinzer’s All the Shah’s Men and its rendering همهی مردان شاه by Khavvajian which were nearly the same as each other were investigated.
۳.۵.۲.۲.۱ Analyzing Translator’s Judgments
This analysis was carried out on the basis of prefaces, footnotes, and/or endnotes of both prototexts and metatexts. Since both سرکوب امید andهمهی مردان شاه were translated in Iran; moreover, one of them was published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” (the Center of Islamic Republic Documents) which is a governmental organization, they represent ideology of Iranian government. This becomes clearer in the next chapter when these two books go thoroughly under scrutiny by the researcher.
۳.۵.۲.۲.۲. Translation Strategies
The translation strategies were investigated to see what ideological implications they might have. The strategies considered to be applied on the abovementioned books were the ones mentioned in Farahzad’s model and they are as follows: Borrowing, Calque, Addition or Overwording, Undertranslation , Omission, Substitution / Alteration, explicitation, Selection of Parts from Wholes, Rearrangement of Sentence Elements. The number of strategies applied in the translation of each book is brought in the next chapter.
۳.۵.۳ Data Sheet
Three types of tables were drawn in chapter 4. The first type presents the number of verbs, types of the verbs used, as well as the number of key words and information related to them.
Table 3.1- sample of verb tables
The name of the books
Key Word Related Usage
Key Word as Direct Agent
The second type of the tables was used to portray the strategies used during translation by the translator, as well as the number of their usage and their percentage.