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جنگ جهانی دوم

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
۱.۱. General Overview………………………..…………………………۱
۱.۲. Statement of the Problem…………..……..……………………….۲
۱.۳. Rationale and Theoretical Framework of the Study………………۳
۱.۴. Research Questions………………………………………………..۴
۱.۵. Research Hypotheses………………………………………………۴
۱.۶. Significance of the Study………………………………………….۵
۱.۷. Limitations of the study……………………………………………۷
۱.۸. Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………..۸
Review of the Related Literature
۲.۱. Introduction……………………………………………………………..۱۰
۲.۲. The History of Critical Discourse Analysis…………………………۱۲
۲.۳. Ideology………….………………………………………………….۱۳
۲.۴. Ideology and Power ……………..………………………………….۱۵
۲.۵. Translation and Power………………………………………………۱۸
۲.۶. Impact of Translation on Representation……………………………۲۱
۲.۷. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress on CDA….…………………..…۲۳
۲.۸. Norman Fairclough on CDA………………………………………..۲۸
۲.۹ Tenn Adrianus Van Dijk on CDA…………………………………..۳۲
۲.۱۰. Farzaneh Farahzad on CDA………………………………………۳۶
۲.۱۰.۱ Microlevel ……………………………………………………۳۷
۲.۱۰.۱.۱ Vocabulary………………………………………………۳۷
۲.۱۰.۱.۲ Grammar…………………………………………………۳۸
۲.۱۰.۱.۳ Multimodal Elements……………………………………۴۰
۲.۱۰.۱.۳.۱Multimodal Discourse Analysis……………………۴۰
۲.۱۰.۲. Macrolevel……….………………………………………………………۴۱
Methodology
۳.۱. Introduction………………………………………………………………۴۴
۳.۲. Restatement of Research Questions………………………………..۴۴
۳.۳. Type of Research …………………….…………………………….۴۵
۳.۴. Corpus ………………………………………………………………۴۵
۳.۵. Procedure …………………………………………………………..۴۵
۳.۵.۱. Data Collection ………………..………………………………۴۶
۳.۵.۲. Instrument and Data Analysis……….……………………….۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱Microlevel………………………………………………………..۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۱. Vocabulary…………………………………………۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۲. Grammar……………………………………………۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۳. Analyzing the Cover pages…………………………۴۸
۳.۶.۱.۳.۱. Method of Analyzing Cover pages………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲. Macrolevel………………………………………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲.۱. Analyzing Translators’ Judgments…………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲.۲. Translation Strategies………………………………۴۹
۳.۵.۳. Data Sheet……………………………………………………..۴۹
Results and Discussions
۴.۱ Overview ………………………………………………….۵۲
۴.۲ Microlevel Analysis…………………………………………………۵۲
۴.۲.۱ Vocabulary……………………………………………………..۵۳
۴.۲.۲. Grammar………………………………………………………۵۴
۴.۲.۲.۱ Passive Transformation……………………………………۵۷
۴.۲.۳. Cover page Analysis ………………………………………….۵۸
۴.۲.۳.۱ Analyzing the Cover Page of “Killing Hope, US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II”…………………………….۵۹
۴.۲.۳.۲. Analyzing the Cover Page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” …………………………………۶۲
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………۶۴
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”……………………………………..۶۶
۴.۳. Macrolevel……………………………..……………………………۶۸
۴.۳.۱. Translator’s Judgments…………………………….………….۶۸
۴.۳.۲. Translation strategies………………………………..…………۷۲
۴.۳.۲.۱ ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”…………………………………………………………………………۷۲
۴.۳.۲.۱.۱ Omission Strategy……………………………………۷۴
۴.۳.۲.۱.۲ Substitution/ Alteration strategies…………………..۷۷
۴.۳.۲.۱.۳ Explicitation…………………………………………۸۴
۴.۳.۲.۱.۴ Mistranslation Strategy………………………………۸۶
۴.۳.۲.۱.۵ Addition Strategy……………………………………۸۷
۴.۳.۲.۱.۶ Undertranslation Strategy……………………………۸۹
۴.۳.۲.۲ “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………………………………………..…۹۰
۴.۳.۲.۲.۱ Omission Strategy……………………………………۹۱
۴.۳.۲.۲.۲ Substitution/ Alteration Strategies……………….…۹۷
۴.۳.۲.۲.۳ Explicitation Strategy………………………………۱۰۷
۴.۳.۲.۲.۴ Addition Strategy………………………………..…۱۰۹
۴.۳.۲.۲.۵ Undertranslation Strategy………………………….۱۱۳
Conclusion
۵.۱ Introduction…………………………………………………….….۱۱۶
۵.۲ Conclusion…………………………………………………..……..۱۱۷
۵.۳ Pedagogical Implications………………………………………..…۱۱۸
۵.۴ Suggestion for Further Research…………………………………..۱۱۹
Bibliograghy………………………………………………….………۱۲۰

List of Tables and Images
Tables:
Table 3.1 sample of verb tables………………………………………….۴۹
Table 3.2 sample of strategy tables……………………………………..۵۰
Table 3.3 sample of each case’s table………………………………..….۵۱
Table 4.1 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و ساز
مان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد………………………………………………………………………..۵۶
Table 4.2 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه…………………………………………………۶۱
Table 4.3 strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” ……………۷۳
Table4.4 …………………………………………………………………۷۴
Table 4.5…………………………………………………………………۷۴
Table 4.6…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.7…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.8…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.9…………………………………………………………………۷۶
Table 4.10……………………………………………………………….۷۷
Table 4.11……………………………………………………………….۷۷
Table 4.12……………………………………………………………….۷۸
Table 4.13……………………………………………………………….۷۹
Table 4.14……………………………………………………………….۷۹
Table 4.15……………………………………………………………….۸۰
Table 4.16……………………………………………………………….۸۰
Table 4.17……………………………………………………………….۸۱
Table 4.18……………………………………………………………….۸۱
Table 4.19……………………………………………………………….۸۲
Table 4.20……………………………………………………………….۸۲
Table 4.21……………………………………………………………….۸۳
Table 4.22……………………………………………………………….۸۴
Table 4.23……………………………………………………………….۸۴
Table 4.24……………………………………………………………….۸۵
Table 4.25……………………………………………………………….۸۶
Table 4.26……………………………………………………………….۸۶
Table 4.27……………………………………………………………….۸۷
Table 4.28……………………………………………………………….۸۸
Table 4.29……………………………………………………………….۸۸
Table 4.30……………………………………………………………….۸۹
Table 4.31……………………………………………………………….۹۰
Table 4.32……………………………………………………………….۹۱
Table 4.33……………………………………………………………….۹۲
Table 4.34……………………………………………………………….۹۲
Table 4.35……………………………………………………………….۹۳
Table 4.36……………………………………………………………….۹۶
Table 4.37……………………………………………………………….۹۶
Table 4.38……………………………………………………………….۹۷
Table 4.39……………………………………………………………….۹۸
Table 4.40……………………………………………………………….۹۹
Table 4.41……………………………………………………………….۹۹
Table 4.42………………………………………………………………۱۰۰
Table 4.43………………………………………………………………۱۰۰
Table 4.44………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.45………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.46………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.47………………………………………………………………۱۰۲
Table 4.48………………………………………………………………۱۰۲
Table 4.49………………………………………………………………۱۰۳
Table 4.50………………………………………………………………۱۰۳
Table 4.51………………………………………………………………۱۰۴
Table 4.52………………………………………………………………۱۰۴
Table 4.53………………………………………………………………۱۰۵
Table 4.54………………………………………………………………۱۰۵
Table 4.55………………………………………………………………۱۰۶
Table 4.56………………………………………………………………۱۰۶
Table 4.57………………………………………………………………۱۰۷
Table 4.58………………………………………………………………۱۰۸
Table 4.59………………………………………………………………۱۰۸
Table 4.60………………………………………………………………۱۰۹
Table 4.61………………………………………………………………۱۰۹
Table 4.62………………………………………………………………۱۱۰
Table 4.63………………………………………………………………۱۱۰
Table 4.64………………………………………………………………۱۱۱
Table 4.65………………………………………………………………۱۱۱
Table 4.66………………………………………………………………۱۱۳
Table 4.67………………………………………………………………۱۱۳
Table 4.68………………………………………………………………۱۱۴
Table 4.69………………………………………………………………۱۱۴
Images
Image 4.1 cover page of “Killing Hope”………………………………..۵۹
Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”………………………………….۶۲
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”………………………..۶۴
Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”………………………………۶۶

این مطلب رو هم توصیه می کنم بخونین:   مقاله درموردکارکنان اداری

List of Abbreviations:
CDA: Critical Discourse Analysis
CL: Critical Linguistics
ST: Source Text
TS: Translation Studies
TT: Target Text

CHAPTER I
Introduction

۱.۱ General Overview
Translation has been practiced from the very beginning of the human history. In Perez’s words “it is as old as human kind”(2003: 10). Translation has also been discussed from various viewpoints such as linguistic, philosophical, social, and many more. The reason is that the act of translation is involved in more than language and it always takes place in the cultural and political systems and in the history.
Translation studies (TS) owes its development more than anything else to James S. Holmes whose prominent essay, ”
the name and nature of translation studies” , was lectured at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics in Copenhagen in 1972 (Monday 2001: 10). Since then many aspects of translation, from linguistic to hermeneutic, to philosophical and political have been continually scrutinized. Although most of the first attempts focused on linguistic aspects as the only way to investigate translation, nowadays there are many more tools at hand for researchers to conduct their investigations on the phenomenon of translation. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), which tries ” to read the traces and effects of power in language and discourse, in text and syntax’ (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 153) is one of these tools.
Perez reflects the idea of CDA scholars when states ” all language use is ideological” (2003: 4), and since translation, as a linguistic and social phenomenon, is carried out on language use it can be a manifestation of ideological encounters too. It is worth mentioning in passing that Fairclough believes (1995: 7) discourse is defined as language use in social practices. On the other hand, Fawcett (1998) demonstrates that ”translation, simply because of its existence, has always been ideological” (cited in Perez, 2003: 107).
Translation has been discussed from social and philosophical viewpoints too. In this regard, translation as a ”representation” of another text and a way through which texts are distributed is in need of more investigation. Simon believes “with the cultural turn in translation studies we can now define translation as the dynamics of culture representation” or “as a tangible representation of a secondary or mediated relationship to reality” (1996: 137). Niranjana, a postcolonial writer, in her seminal book Sitting Translation (1992: 10) argues that colonial forces have used translation as a tool to misrepresent oriental colonized subjects and cultures. This point confirms the profound impact of translation on culture.
۱.۲ statement of

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