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ایالات متحده آمریکا

of friendliness to the text which shows Tibetans brought to Colorado consider it as their homeland which bears a closer sense of affability than the word Tibet used by the translator. Since these people were taken there to be trained to take part paramilitary groups later, the translator used substitution strategy in using a less friendly word to show he is not sympathizing with them unlike the writer.

Table 4.11
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China.” (p.25)
Target Text
” چینیها تلاش فراوان به خرج دادند که ادعاهایشان را مبنی بر اینکه ایالات متحده آمریکا،…، مقادیر هنگفتی میکروب…، ثابت کنند.” (ص. ۲۸)

In the above paragraph the word the author used is “publicizing” which is different from “proving” which the translator used by alteration. The first has a lower effect than the latter. Also the writer used “quantities” not “massive quantities” added by the translator which once again is employed to represent the enormity of the situation.
Table 4.12
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
a Tudeh-sponsored demonstration was brutally suppressed by Mossadegh, resulting in some 100 deaths and 500 injured.” (p. 65)
Target Text
“تظاهراتی که حزب توده ترتیب داده بود به کشته شدن ۲۰ نفر و زخمی شدن ۵۰۰ نفر انجامید.” (ص. ۱۳۸)

What is mentioned in the original text is totally altered by the translator. In the original text it is obvious that Mosaddegh was partly responsible for the deaths of 100 people while in the target text there is no sign of Mosaddegh’s name in the text, moreover the number of people killed in the demonstration is mentioned as 20 which is one fifth of the source text. Also in translation the subject is demonstrated in a way that it is possible to consider that the people who are killed are from both sides while in the ST they are victimized by Mosaddegh. In aspect of technique used here this is kind of alteration and selection of a part from a whole.
Table 4.13
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“the proverbial communist takeover”(p. 64)
Target Text
” روی کار آمدن کمونیستهای تودهای”(ص. ۱۳۵)

The “proverbial” is used “when you describe something using part of a well-known expression”. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) so the translator by using substitution technique used the familiar term “The Tudeh” instead of “proverbial” to give specific information about a branch of communism in Iran which is known to everyone. In this way he could establish a better relation with the reader.
Table 4.14
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The various accounts of the CIA role in Iran have the Agency spending from $10,000 to $19 million to overthrow Mossadegh.” (p. 68)
Target Text
“… سازمان مبلغی بین ۱۰۰۰۰۰ تا ۱۹ میلیون دلار صرف براندازی مصدق کرد.” (ص. ۱۴۳)
The amount of money spent to overthrow Mosaddegh announced by CIA agents in the original text varies from $10,000 to $19 million but $10,000 in the ST is altered to $100,000 in the translated text. The reason is that the translator considers that the variation of numbers between $100,000 and $19 million is more reasonable than between $10,000 and $19 million. So in his view it is not logical that all the money has been spent on toppling a Prime Minister down equals to $10,000.
Table 4.15
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Love’s views, contained in a paper he wrote in 1960, may well have been inspired by information received from the CIA.” (p. 69)
Target Text
“احتمال میرود نظریهی لاو، در کتابی که در ۱۹۶۰ منتشر ساخت، …” (ص. ۱۴۵)

It goes without saying that a paper in aspect of the amount of material it is covering is smaller than a book. Also usually a book’s value is higher than a paper’s. Bearing that in mind, the translator substituted “a paper” in the ST with “a book” in the TT to show that the amount of information that has been released against CIA by Love is more than it is mentioned in reality. Since this information is related to the interference of USA in other countries, the more the better.
Table 4.16
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Though sponsored by the Tudeh” (p. 69)
Target Text
“تظاهرات یاد شده را [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] جبههی ملی ترتیب داده بود” (ص. ۱۴۶)

The translator used two strategies in the above mentioned translation. Instead of “The Tudeh” in the ST he used ” “جبههی ملیor “National Front Party” in the TT which is a total substitution and also he employed explicitation in [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] or (aniiversary of 30th of Tir) to bring the demonstration closer to the mind of the Iranian Readers. Since he considered “National Front Party” more in line with the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran than “The Tudeh” and he deemed if there is a demonstration it is more appropriate for “National Front Party” to lead it, used it over “The Tudeh”.
Table 4.17
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“When to this is added a level of corruption that “startled even the most hardened observers of Middle Eastern thievery” (p. 71)
Target Text
“…. حتی پوستکلفتترین دزدان خاورمیانه را به شگفت میانداخت”(ص. ۱۵۱)

In the original text the word “observers” means the people who were watching closely the Middle Eastern thievery. In the translated text this word is changed to “thieves”. This substitution is employed to enlarge the magnitude of corruption in Iran to the extent that even thieves themselves are bewildered by that.

Table 4.18
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The payments to the ayatollahs and mullahs began in 1953 and continued regularly until 1977 when President Carter abruptly halted them.” (p. 71)
Target Text
“پرداخت پول به روحانینمایان …” (ص. ۱۵۲)

In the original text it is mentioned that CIA was bribing some “ayatollahs and mullahs” to give speech in favor of the USA. But in the translation the translator called them “fake clergymen”. This alteration by the translator is because Iran unlike many other countries is a country that clergymen take political roles in managing the country; this is to the extent that based on Iran’s Constitutional Law the person who is leading the country should be an ayatollah. For the reasons mentioned above, clergymen and ayatollahs are respected in Iran and the translator does not want to taint their titles by bribery.
Table 4.19

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جنگ جهانی دوم، کودتای ۲۸ مرداد

was a spy aircraft which could be regarded as the characteristic of American military power and its hegemony over the world; so it symbolizes power. It is black which can be a sign for suffocating hegemony of the USA after World War II over most part of the world and the black color is also aligned with the title of the book- Killing Hope. The fighter covers to the extent of 80 percent of the cover page foreground and the rest which is a-twenty-percent background shows a distant view of the earth. This devotion (80&20) by itself can illustrate that US has a large proportion of the earth under its power. The direction of the fighter represents the liveliness and the presence of the power.
On the whole, the composition of the elements of the cover page represented some kinds of power interrelated with lack of hope.
The USA, which fought in the name of peace and war with terrorism. Actually the USA, which shouts democracy and “hope” for every nation in the world now, is brought under the question of all he proclaims with the terms used in the title of the book, ”Killing Hope”. The USA which is supposed to bring ”hope” to nations is now killing it.
The blue color of the earth at the background symbolizes tranquility and peace. This might suggest to an observant viewer the USA’s fighting in the name of peace.
The large font of the main title and also that it is written all in capital makes it to become closer to the viewer and became the most dominant element in the cover page and hence might make the viewer more engaged in the idea behind the title. Moreover, the color of the letters is white which is supposed to represent peace but ironically the word “killing” is written in it. The words “US military & CIA” which are supposed to protect human rights and nation rights are also written in white along with “interventions” which brings a total paradox to the ground.

Table 4.2- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه
ALL THE SHAH’S MEN
ST
TT
Total Verbs
۴۷۵۰
۵۴۲۰
Actionals
۳۹۱۰
۳۹۶۰
Relationals
۸۴۰
۱۴۶۰
Passives
۲۶۰
۱۸۰
Total USA Related Usage
۳۲۶
۳۷۲
USA as a Direct Agent
۲۱۶
۲۴۸
Total Britain Related Usage
۴۹۳
۵۶۲
Britain as a Direct Agent
۳۸۸
۴۱۲

۴.۲.۳.۲ Analyzing the cover page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”

Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”

Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: an American soldier holding an M16 in hand → action: military power
– Background: a twilight → action: despair and wane
Typography title: – Down: ”ویلیام بلوم” in black and red
“مترجم: دکتر عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی” in white
” سرکوب امید” in a large white font
“(دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد)” in a small white font
” مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی” in a small white font
The US soldier holding an M16 standing at the foreground colored all black because he is standing between the viewer and the last remaining of the sunlight. The color of the soldier’s photo matches the color of the fighter on the cover of the original book. They both represent military power along with despair. The part that specifically covers the sun is the gun which without it the sunlight could reach the viewer. The diagonal position of the barrel of the gun can represent uncertainty of the soldier holding it or at least not being ready shoot. The twilight at the background can represent the last remaining hope to reach peace and freedom for those under the exploitation of the USA which without US military power reaching it is possible. Twilight along with the diagonal position of the gun can also symbolize the power of the USA on the wane. More than half of the page is colored red which brings to the mind of the viewer the color of blood which unlike the background color in the original book (blue) causes dread and insecurity.
The title of the book like the one in the original book is written in white and large font to bring the idea behind the topic closer to the viewer. The same paradox between the content of the title which is despair and the color of the letters which is white can be found in both the original and the translated books.
There are different types of fonts in Persian language but the one is selected here is more rigid than the regular smooth and flexible ones to demonstrate toughness of the idea behind it.
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street→ action: demonstration
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
Typography title: – Up: all in capital: All THE SHAH’S MEN
– Middle: all in capital: AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR
– Down: all in capital: STEPHEN KINZER
The photo that is covering half of the page seems to be taken from a group of people at the time of the Coup in Iran. The garlands around the pictures of the Shahs show these people are supporting the Shah. Since there were two groups at the time of the Coup: one supporting Mosaddegh, another supporting the Shah, the cover page seems to have lost one of them. In the middle of the page the “AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR” is written in red that is a proper choice because red brings blood and danger into the mind of the reader. Also the middle text like all letters on the cover is written in capital to enlarge the vastness of American crimes. At the top there is nothing but half a page in white which All THE SHAH’S MEN is written on it in large font and in black. Using black on white background at the top somehow represents the blackness of The Shah and “all the Shah’s men” ‘s character over the whiteness of pure Iran and the capitalization of the letters tries to magnify this blackness.

۴.۲.۳.۴ Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”

Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street → action: demonstration.
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
– Up: a stamp of the Shah Mohammadreza → action:
Typography title: – Up: in black and large font: همهی مردان شاه and in smaller font and black under it کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاورمیانه
– Middle: written in white on a red background استیفن کینزر and under it ترجمه شهریار خواجیان
Since both the original and the translated book share the same image that covers half of the page what has been mentioned about the image of the cover page in the original book can be applied here as well;
t
hough, there is a slight change at the top of the cover page. The color of the cover page at the top is gray that connotes ambiguity and vagueness and it also foreshadows blackness. It does not resemble the cover page of the ST that is black and white at the top. The stamp of the Shah nearly in the middle of the cover page and its position is of great importance. Using someone’s photo on a stamp represents permanence and stability. The Shah is wearing military uniform on the stamp which represents power at the same time the position of the stamp on the cover page is not upright which is demonstrating instability of Shah’s position in the country which can be an answer to those protecting The Shah in the image at the bottom of the page. Since the translator could not bring another image to represent both parties: those demonstrating for The Shah and those demonstrating for Mosaddegh, he employed the stamp to represent the latter party. Considering what has been mentioned so far, the cover page of the TT seems to encompass both parties, rather than the cover page of the TT which encompassed one of the two parties.

۴.۳ Macrolevel Analysis

۴.۳.۱ Translators’ judgments

At this level of investigation the translators’ judgments was scrutinized. The traces of translators’ ideological viewpoints could be found in preface to translations, footnotes, and endnotes thereof.
William Blum, the author of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” was a member of the Western community. The title he chose for his book at the first step suggested that there were some people out there whose hope is being killed by US military and CIA which at this level might include the Americans, the country or the states of the US. In this regard he is a political critic who describes the interventions of the USA in other countries in his book, briefly. The reason why he criticized US policy is different from that of the Iranian translator, because he is part of the Western culture. This meant that the Function of the texts in the receiver’s culture was different from that of the source culture. The author wrote the book not because he hated America or wanted to damage his own country but because he thinks in this way he is serving his country in a reformist manner.
On the other hand, the translated book was published in Iran which considered the USA as its most dangerous foe. America is the ‘great devil’ for Iranian official policy developers. In this different context the book’s function had changed to some extent. The TT did not have a constructive role as the original one but it followed a destructive role to darken the picture of the ‘greatest enemy’. Here the book and its translator were located in the culture of those people who might hate America, not that of ‘America’ which is the subject of hatred and that of the authors.
In the preface to the translated book which is published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” the Center of Islamic Republic Documents, one of the governmental dependant organizations, in Iran there are some statements like:
– زیادهخواهی آمریکاییان در سایر کشورها
– سیاهکاریهای ایالات متحده در ایران
– غارت ثروت ملی ایران
Which show the gravity of hatred from the perspective of the translator and the Center of Islamic Republic Documents which published the book and it is a representative of Iranian government. Moreover, sentences like:
– نویسنده به اوضاع داخلی کشورمان در عصر پهلوی و حمایتهای آمریکا از بزرگترین دیکتاتور منطقه بسیار کمتر پرداخته و فقط به مقتضای بحث در بخشهای مختلف کتاب به آن اشاره میکند.
– وقایع دوران نهضت ملی و چگونگی اجرای کودتای ۲۸ مرداد در بحث مستقل

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جنگ جهانی دوم

و نه چندان مبسوط آمده است.
– البته تمامی مطالب کتاب با واقعیتهای جهانی همخوانی ندارد و نظرات و قضاوتهای نویسنده نیز دربارهی تمامی گروهها و نظامهای حاکم بر کشورهای مختلف کاملا صادق نیست.
Show that although the Center of Islamic Republic Documents appreciates the view of the writer and his work, they are not in agreement with all the matters went on in the book. They believe that since Iran played a vital role in not only the Middle East but also over the globe dealing with matters related to Iran must have been more in depth and length.
In the preface of the book “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” written by Stephen Kinzer who is a veteran New York Times correspondent and has reported from more than fifty countries on five continents we are facing someone who is in the US context and is trying to elaborate on the matter why the outlook of people outside the borders of the US is gloomy toward America. Looking at the following sentence which are told by an Iranian woman, we figure out the main mission of Kinzer’s writing this book is to go into the detail of the reasons why other countries mistrust the USA, so that this would never happen in the future and America would gain the trust of other nations back and become the godfather everyone expects.
“Why did you Americans do that terrible thing?” she cried out. “We always loved America. To us, America was the great country, the perfect country, the country that helped us while other countries were exploiting us. But after that moment, no one in Iran ever trusted the United States again. I can tell you for sure that if you had not done that thing, you would never have had that problem of hostages being taken in your embassy in Tehran. All your trouble started in 1953.Why, why did you do it?”
Moreover in one paragraph of the preface kinzer uses the word “Theocracy” to refer to the newborn Iranian government which was elected in a public election as Islamic Republic of Iran and takes for granted that this government uses “terrorism” as its weapon to control the country. The sentences are as follows:
”In Iran, almost everyone has for decades known that the United States was responsible for putting an end to democratic rules in 1953 and installing what became the long dictatorship of Mohammad Reza Shah. His dictatorship produced the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which brought to power a passionately anti-American theocracy that embraced terrorism as a tool of statecraft. Its radicalism inspired anti-Western fanatics in many countries, most notably Afghanistan, where al-Qaeda and other terror groups found homes and bases.”
On the other hand Shahryar Khavajian, the translator of the book ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه” although respects the idea of the writer of the book to some extent, he is not after reclaiming the lost reputation of the USA as kinzer is. Khavajian as an Iranian does not believe in the reasons Americans standing upon to force the Coup to Iranians. Americans claim that they arranged the Coup in Iran just because the danger of communism and the Soviet Union was threatening Iran. Khavajian says “if the Soviet Union had been going to attack Iran and had had the power to do so, it would have happened after withdrawal of American and British soldiers from Iran when still Stalin was in power.”
Another point is that kinzer mentions in different parts of his book, specifically, the back of the cover page of the translated book that what USA had done 60 years ago ignited a flame, in that America is still burning. One of those flares coming out of the flame of American Coup in Iran, he claims, is Iran’s revolution which if it had not been for the Coup it would not had happened and Americans would not have had such problems they are facing now. On page 203 of his book he mentions the above mentioned ideas as this:
“With their devotion to radical Islam and their eagerness to embrace even the most horrific kinds of violence, Iran’s revolutionary leaders became heroes to fanatics in many countries. Among those who were inspired by their example were Afghans who founded the Taliban, led it to power in Kabul, and gave Osama bin-Laden the base from which he launched devastating terror attacks. It is not far-fetched to draw a line from Operation Ajax through the Shah’s repressive regime and the Islamic Revolution to the fireballs that engulfed the World Trade Center in New York.”
What he mentioned above bears two sides. One is informing Americans of why hatred around the globe toward them is growing and why they are suffering from terrorism so much. Another side of the coin is that America has done a bad deed once 60 years ago in a corner of the world, and Americans are still suffering from it. Looking upon the matter in this perspective brings pity for Americans. The latter view also takes for granted that whatever is happening to the USA is on behalf of Islamic extremists, at the top of them Iranians. Nonetheless, it has not yet been indicated that one who was behind the attack to the World Trade Center.
This showed that the translation aimed at showing that America was a false pretender of democracy and human rights. While the author’s objective, as stated in the preface and specifically the last parts of the book, was to show that the Coup in Iran in spite of America’s direct meddling was the cause of later side-effects.
۴.۳.۲ Translation Strategies
By analyzing the strategies applied in the translation of these two books, it became clear that in both سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی” دوم به بعد” and همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”” the translation strategies were applied purposefully and ideologically. The justification of choosing each strategy is brought after each case. In the following the strategies the translators, Khavvajian and Hooshang Mahdavi, employed to apply their ideologies to the TT are brought in length and in short (in tables 4.3 & 4.31).

۴.۳.۲.۱ ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”

In the translation of the ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” different strategies such as omission, addition or over-wording, mistranslation, under-translation, substitution or alteration, and explicitation were applied. Since the organization behind the translation of this book, “”مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی, is supported directly by the government, the strategies were applied consciously by the translator to fulfill the expectation of the mentioned organization or his own beliefs. The number and percentage of each strategy is depicted in table 4.1 below.

Table 4.3- strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”
Strategies Applied in Translation of Killing Hope
Number
Percentage %
Omission
۶
۲۲
Substitution/Alteration
۱۲
۴۴
Explicitation
۴
۱۵
Mistranslation
۱
۴
Addition
۳
۱۱
Undertranslation
۱
۴
Borrowing
۰
۰
Calque
۰
۰
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
۰
۰
Selection of Parts From Wholes
۰
۰
Total Number of Strategies
۲۷
۱۰۰

Here come the cases on which the investigation of translation strategies has taken place and divided based on each strategy:

۴.۳.۲.۱.۱ Omission Strategy
Tab
le
4.4
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“After completing training, each group of Tibetans was flown to Taiwan or another friendly Asian country, …” (p.25)
Target Text
“… به تایوان یا کشور آسیایی دیگری گسیل میشدند … ” (ص. ۲۸)

The translator did not use “friendly Asian country” because to the country of the author -USA- may some Asian countries be friendly which in the eye of the translator’s country -Iran- they are not considered as allies. In this regard he used omission strategy to fulfill the ideology he believes in.
Table 4.5
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the Iranian Communist Party (The Tudeh)” (p.65)
Target Text
“حزب کمونیست توده”(ص. ۱۳۶)

By omitting the word “Iranian” consciously or unconsciously, being under the influence of Islam, the translator avoids mentioning that “The Tudeh” party was also part of Iranian history. So somehow he is trying to purify the name of his country from the Communist ideology.
Table 4.6
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“[Mosaddegh] had appointed some Tudeh sympathizers to government posts.” (p.66)
Target Text

The above sentence from the ST is totally omitted from the TT may be because Mosaddegh was a national figure and did really important measures for his country the translator did not want to mention that he had communist inclinations.
Table 4.7
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the “The notorious Iranian secret police, SAVAK, created under the guidance of the
CIA and Israel,…” (p. 71)
Target Text
“ساواک پلیس امنیت بدنام ایران که به راهنمایی موساد اسراییل تاسیس شد،…” (ص. ۱۵۱)
In the translated text two strategies are employed by the translator: explicitation and deletion. The translator used “Israel” next to “Mossad” to highlight Israel’s role in training notorious SAVAK agents. Also he deleted “CIA” from the translated text to magnify the role of “Israel” which is Iran’s number one enemy. Since the Israeli forces occupied Palestine, Iran does not even recognize them as a country.
Table 4.8
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“it [Syria] was the only state in the area to refuse all US economic or military assistance.” (p.85)

Target Text
“]سوریه[ تنها کشور منطقه به شمار میآمد که کمک نظامی آمریکا را نپذیرفته بود.” (ص. ۱۸۱)

Omitting the term “economic” by the translator represents the fact that he is trying to induce that American help can only cover military part and this country is always after military interference.
Table 4.9
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the United States is prepared to use armed forces to assist any Middle East country requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism”. (p. 89)
Target Text
“ایالات متحده برای حفظ تمامیت ارضی و استقلال سیاسی ملتهایی که برای مقابله با تجاوز آشکار مسلحانهی کشورهای زیر نفوذ کمونیسم بینالمللی چنین کمکی را تقاضا کنند، قوای مسلح خود را به کار خواهد برد.”(ص. ۱۹۲)

As it is obvious above there is no sign of Middle East in the translation. By deleting Middle East from the translation, the translator indicates that the US army is going to interfere everywhere over the globe.

۴.۳.۲.۱.۲ Substitution/ Alteration strategies
Table 4.10
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“An altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland”(p. 25)

Target Text
“ارتفاع آن شبیه تبت بود”(ص. ۲۸)

By using the adjective “mountainous” and the word ”homeland” instead of Tibet itself the writer brings a sense

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جنگ جهانی دوم

۳.۲- sample of strategy tables
Strategies Applied in the Books
Number
Percentage %
Omission

Substitution/Alteration

Explicitation

Mistranslation

Addition

Undertranslation

Borrowing

Calque

Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements

Selection of Parts From Wholes

Total Number of Strategies

The third type of the tables were employed to manifest each case and its translation separately along with the strategy used in it.

Table 3.3- sample of each case’s table
Translation Strategy

Source Text

Target Text

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

۴.۱. Overview

In the present chapter, each book specified in the corpus will be analyzed separately in a comparative study at the three levels of textual, paratextual and semiotic suggested by Farahzad (2007). At the textual level, the in-text strategies used by the translator in translation of the selected text from each book are analyzed for determining their ideological significance. At the paratextual level, any available footnote, endnote, foreword or introduction is analyzed. At the semiotic level, the cover image as well as any pictures or figures are analyzed for determining the ideological value and alignment with the dominant ideologies in Iran. These levels were carried out separately on the selected corpus element.

۴.۲ Microlevel Analysis

۴.۲.۱ Vocabulary

Regarding vocabulary in this research one question had been examined:

• Are there any words and expressions used in the metatext which are ideologically significant? What role do they play in their corresponding TT?

Concerning the book ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” this research took the word America and any other word which directly or indirectly was related to the USA as a key term, words like US, USA, Washington, George Bush and so on. The reason was that these words had an ideological importance in the target culture and the content of both books directly revolved around these terms. These words were repeated altogether 2127 times in the Source Text and 3320 times in the Target Text (Table 4.1). This showed that the ‘USA’ and all words and pronouns directly related to it had become more visible in the translated text. This became more important when some more data were collected to show the grammatical roll of these ‘USA-related words’. This is elaborated later in the research.

Considering the book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” two key words of ”USA” and all the words in relation to this word and also ”Britain” and all the words pertinent to it was considered to be investigated. This is because this book was totally dedicated to describe the pivotal role of the USA and Britain in overthrowing Mohammad Mosaddegh. The first key term (USA) was repeated 326 times in the source text and 372 times in the Target text. Repeating the word Britain and its related words 493 times in the source text depicts the role of Britain even stronger than America in the 1953 Coup in Iran which burned fifty years of effort to reach democracy into ashes. This word was repeated 562 times in the target text (table 4.2). Both key terms and the words related to them were repeated more than the times in the TT which illustrates that they become more visible in the eye of the translator.
۴.۲.۲ Grammar
In the second level of this research the grammar of the texts was scrutinized. This thesis focused on process types and agency and the voice of sentences to see whether they were active or passive. The questions in this regard were:

• What kinds of processes predominate in the ST and TT? Is agency unclear?
• How much percent of the sentences are active or passive in the Persian and English texts?

To find the answer to the first question, what was mentioned earlier in chapter two from Kress and Hodge about processes had been taken into consideration. Shortly, they categorize processes into two types: ”actionals” and “relationals”. Actionals are those verbs which indicate the actions. Relationals on the other hand are used to classify and attribute adjectives (1996: 39).

The corpus element selected from ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” contained 4483 verbs. 3868 Verbs were actionals and 615 were relationals. This gave an impression that the text emphasized more on actions rather than relations. The text was more in motion and it showed some processes were actually happening; rather than mere a description of a status.
On the other hand, in the TT there were 5014 verbs which 4179 of them were actionals and 835 relationals. This indicated that our TT was involved more in actions regarding the source text and actions had gained more emphasis. With this, the concept of agents became even more important to pay attention to (Table 4.1).
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 2127 uses of such words in the ST and 3320 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 1420 times while in the Target Text this became 1920(Table 4.1).this indicates that in the TT America was more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was criticizing the USA for its actions it became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the USA’s shoulders and had let the readers to blame US more easily.
Regarding the selected parts from the second book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” there were 4750 verbs on the whole in the source corpus, 840 of which relationals, 3910 and actionals.
This showed again that this text dealt more with actions rather than relations and attributions. Moreover in the TT there were 5420 verbs. 3960 Of them were actionals and 1460 were relationals (Table 4.2). The TT tended to actions rather than relations too. As it had been said most of the agents in both TT and ST were somehow related to America. So once again it became clear that in the TT the USA became more responsible for actions and as they were more related to abuses of power and evil deeds, the US more deserved to be blamed and condemned by readers.
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 326 uses of such words in the ST and 372 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 216 times while in the Target Text this became 248; moreover, the term Britain and its related words were repeated 493 times in the ST while they were repeated 562 times in the TT. In the ST these words played roles as direct agents for 388 times while the same words in the TT were appeared 412 times as direct agents (Table 4.2). This depicts that in the TT USA and Britain were more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was based on the fact that these two countries were directly responsible for the Coup to oust Mosaddegh in Iran It became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the shoulders of USA and Britain and had let the readers blame them more easily.

Table 4.1- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing
Ho
pe, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد
KILLING HOPE
ST
TT
Total Verbs
۴۴۸۳
۵۰۱۴
Actionals
۳۸۶۸
۴۱۷۹
Relationals
۶۱۵
۸۳۵
Passives
۵۸۴
۶۵۲
Total USA Related Usage
۲۱۲۷
۳۳۲۰
USA as Direct Agent
۱۴۲۰
۱۹۲۰
۴.۲.۲.۱ Passive Transformation

In ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” there were 584 passives which comparing the 4483 processes, had not been that important (around 12 percent). This showed that the writer had revealed causality process in his sentences and had avoided mystification. This was, by some means, in line with the critical tone of the writer who had investigated ”US military and CIA interventions since World War II”. In the target text, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”, there were 652 passives out of 5014 processes (around 12 percent). Again this showed the translator had not radically changed the voices of the verbs, regarding the total number of the processes in Persian. The translator, also, wanted the agents to be clear because through this technique the critical and denouncing positioning of the translator towards the USA became more unambiguous.
In the second book, “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”, the same trend was obvious There were 260 passives out of 4750 processes (about 6 percent of the total amount). In the translated text there were 180 passives out of 5420 processes (around 2 percent). These numbers showed that both the translator and author had chosen the anti-mystification strategy to show what the United States was performing in its ongoing relations with the rest of the world. But a delicate difference was evident in this book and its corresponding translation regarding the former book, i.e. passives had reduced by around 4 percents in the TT. It was already mentioned that the second book was entirely dedicated to show what America and Britain had done and were doing in their ongoing deeds inside and outside their borders and the majority of ‘agents’ directly or indirectly referred to the USA and Britain or their administrative institutions like CIA and MI6. By decreasing the number of passives, once again the USA and Britain became more responsible for its actions and evilness in the TT.
Unlike the author whose context was US community and may have taken some matters into considerations by not talking more vividly the translator was in a totally different context. He did not feel any problem to reveal whatever was regarded as bad deeds against America and Britain so they had used active mode more generously instead of passives.

۴.۲.۳ Cover page Analysis

۴.۲.۳.۱ Analyzing the cover-page of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”
Image 4.1- cover page of “Killing Hope”

Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: one fighter→ action: military power
– Background: a distant view over the earth → action: victimize
Typography title: – Up: William Blum, AUTHOR OF ROGUE STATE
– Middle: all in capital: KILLING HOPE
– Down: US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II

The aircraft in the multimodal text (image 4.1), i.e. cover page,

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social، CDA

hence responsible for reductionist misconception’ is here meant in the broad sense of a ‘communicative event’, including conversational interaction, written text, as well as associated gestures, typographical layout, images and any other ‘semiotic’ or multimedia dimension of signification. Similarly, ‘cognition’ here involves both personal and social cognition, beliefs and goals as well as evaluations and emotions, and any other ‘mental’ or ‘memory’ structures, representations or processes involved in discourse and interaction. And finally, ‘society’ is meant to include both the local, microstructures of situated face-to-face interactions, as well as the more global, societal and political structures variously defined in terms of groups, group-relations (such as dominance and inequality), movements, institutions, organizations, social processes, political systems and more abstract properties of societies and cultures. he goes on to state that adequate discourse analysis at the same time needs detailed cognitive and social analysis, and vice versa, and that it is only the combination of these accounts that may reach descriptive and especially critical sufficiency in the study of social problems( Wodak & Meyer, 2001: 100). Van Dijk explains that CDA does not provide a clichéd approach to social analysis, but emphasizes that for each study a thorough theoretical analysis of a social issue must be made, so as to be able to select which discourse and social structures to analyze and to relate (Wodak & Meyer, 2001: 100). He believes that in any practical sense there is no such thing as a complete discourse analysis: a full analysis of a short passage might take months and fill hundreds of pages. He mentions the reason for that as decades of specializations in the field have ‘discovered’ many hundreds of relevant units, levels, dimensions, moves, strategies, types of acts, devices and other structures of discourse. There may be visual, phonological, syntactic, semantic, stylistic, rhetorical, pragmatic, and interactional levels and structures. Hence in CDA a researcher must make choices, and select those structures for better analysis that are relevant for the study of a social issue (Wodak & Meyer, 2001: 98). Thus, if we want to study the ways some speakers or writers exercise power in or by their discourse, it only makes sense to study those properties that can vary as a function of social power. Thus the features which are under the control of speaker are topics for CDA and not those obligatory forms such as the form of words and many structures of sentences are grammatically obligatory and contextually invariant and hence usually not subject to speaker control, and hence irrelevant for a study of social power.
Van Dijk (1998, cited in Schiffrin & Hamilton, 2001: 275) suggests critical research on discourse demands to satisfy a number of prerequisites in order for its aim to be realized effectively:
– “As is often the case for more marginal research traditions, CDA research has to be ‘better’ than other research in order to be accepted.
– It focuses primarily on social problems and political issues, rather than on current paradigms and fashions.
– Empirically adequate critical analysis of social problems is usually multidisciplinary.
– Rather than to merely describe discourse structures, it tries to explain them in terms of social interaction and especially social structure.
– More specifically CDA focuses on the ways discourse structures enact, confirm, legitimate, reproduce or challenge relations of power and dominance in society”.
۲.۱۰ Farzaneh Farahzad on CDA
Although Translation Studies has employed various methods in its investigations, it has rarely approached translation analysis through CDA. Only few scholars such as Perez (2003) and Schaffner 1999 (cited in Perez, 2003) in ”Third Ways and New Centres: Ideological Unity or Difference?’ use or mention CDA in some parts of their works.
Farahzad (2007, Bokhara, N. 62: 420-424) seems to be among the first scholars who specifically used CDA as an innovative approach in analyzing translation. She proposes a method for criticizing translation in ‘Translation Criticism’. Farahzad suggests a model for translation criticism which is based on Fairclough’s approach to CDA and intertexuality. Fairclough (1995a: 4) defines intertexuality as ‘texts are constituted from other already produced texts and from potentially diverse text types’. She chooses the terms used by Poppovic as metatext and prototext to refer to corresponding target text and source text. Prototext is ‘a text which serves as an object of intertexual continuity’ and ‘metatext is a text which has been produced using another text’. She declares these two texts are related to each other when they are placed in a translational context. Farahzad adds that prototext and metatext are related to one another through global intertexuality or what she refers to as ‘the continuity of the prototext in the intertexual chain’.
For translation criticism, Farahzad adopts a two-level procedure: micro-level and macro-level. She notes that at both levels lexical choices, metaphors, grammatical elements, and multimodal elements are checked for ideological implications. In her model, the prototext is analyzed as a means of throwing some light on certain properties of metatext. On the other hand, metatext is studied both as an independent text and a continuation of a given prototext. Here the procedure Farahzad proposes comes under the headings Micro- and Macro-level:

۲.۱۰.۱ Microlevel
At microlevel, following features are scrutinized (Farahzad 2007, Bokhara, N. 62: 420-424):
۱. Vocabulary
۲. Grammar
۳. Multimodal Elements
۲.۱۰.۱.۱Vocabulary
Under vocabulary the following issues are examined (Farahzad 2007, Bokhara, N. 62: 420-424):
– Are any of the words/terms used in the metatext ideologically significant?
– Do any of the words of the metatext signify any special relationship or power relation?
– What metaphors are used? What social issues they represent? (Metaphor as defined by Fairclough (1989: 119) is ”a means of representing one aspect of experience in terms of another.”)
۲.۱۰.۱.۲ Grammar
For examining grammar following questions are answered (Farahzad, cited in Bokhara, 2007, N. 62: 420-424):
۱. What kinds of process predominate? How are they rendered into target language? Is agency unclear?
۲. Are nominalizations used? How are they translated into target language?
۳. Are sentences positive or negative? How are they translated?
۴. What modes (declarative, interrogative or imperative) are used? How are they translated?
۵. Are sentences active or passive? How are they rendered into TT?
۶. What tenses are used in metatext?
Regarding the first question, it is necessary to mention that Hodge & Kress define two types of processes based upon functional grammar of Halliday. They categorize processes into ‘actionals’ and ‘relationals’. Actionals are those verbs which indicate the (physical or mental) actions like bit, go, and think (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 39). Relationals on the other hand are used to classify and attribute adjectives (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 103). Three basic models of relationals are: noun + ‘is’ + noun and noun + ‘is’ + adjective and noun + ‘have’ + noun. The first model allows the speaker to establish the relationship between categories and the second lets attributes to be linked to any entity.
In pursuing answer to the fifth question what Hodge & Kress (1993) say about passive transformation is important when they discuss passive transformation. Transformations are a set of operations on basic forms, deleting, substituting, combining, or recording syntagm or its elements and they serve two functions: economy and distortion (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 9). When they are used for distortion they serve the function of mystification, i.e. they are used to mystify the causality process by hiding the actor(s
).
This opens the possibility of substituting different actors by different readers, based on their choices, which are more or less dependent upon their unconscious body of knowledge, i.e. common sense and this knowledge is produced by dominant discourse in a society.
Passive form can be defined as ‘the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb’ (Retrieved June 13, 2013, from http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/).
Hodge & Kress (1993: 26) point to five effects of passive transformation. They are listed here:
• The theme of the sentence changes from actor to affected.
• The link between actor and process is weakened, i.e. the causal connection is syntactically looser.
• The process becomes more like an adjective, a state.
• The cause of the process is deleted, and it may be difficult or impossible to recover.
• Causality is no longer the main concern but instead attribution or classification is. The change from verbal process to qualify or state is complete.
As it was mentioned earlier, the purpose of transformations including passive transformation is mystification and obscuring. On the contrary the opposite is also correct, that is when non-transformed version is used the process of causality from the writer’s viewpoint is going to be revealed to the readers and an ‘anti-mystification’ process is on the way.
۲.۱۰.۱.۳ Multimodal Elements
Finally, in probing multimodal elements, the cover page will be analyzed and the way it is represented in the largest text is scrutinized. In doing so ‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ will be employed.
۲.۱۰.۱.۳.۱ Multimodal Discourse Analysis
Today, it is a normal practice that texts do not merely rely on written language. In order to achieve the goals of the writers and publishers multiple modes are used, each of which is a complementary tool to reach the final meaning desired by them. Some scholars even state their doubt on whether language is the most effective mode in all conditions. Their reason is that ‘other modes may be able to realize discursive meanings which writing or speech could not, and because some meanings may be more readily ‘received’ in one mode rather than another’ (Kress & Leeuwen, 2001: 29-30). It is a real and undeniable fact that monomodal texts are increasingly replaced by multimodal texts.
Kress and Leeuwen (2001: 20) define multimodality ‘as the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these modes are combined’. In other words ‘multimodality is communication as a multimodal phenomenon where meaning is realized in the interplay between different modes of signification such as language, image, and music. Multimodality is by no means something new, but increasing distribution of the electronic media and tendencies to visualization in the print media may have contributed to the increased theoretical attention to multimodality in recent years (Kress & leeuwen, 2001: 155).
Some of

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جنگ جهانی دوم

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
۱.۱. General Overview………………………..…………………………۱
۱.۲. Statement of the Problem…………..……..……………………….۲
۱.۳. Rationale and Theoretical Framework of the Study………………۳
۱.۴. Research Questions………………………………………………..۴
۱.۵. Research Hypotheses………………………………………………۴
۱.۶. Significance of the Study………………………………………….۵
۱.۷. Limitations of the study……………………………………………۷
۱.۸. Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………..۸
Review of the Related Literature
۲.۱. Introduction……………………………………………………………..۱۰
۲.۲. The History of Critical Discourse Analysis…………………………۱۲
۲.۳. Ideology………….………………………………………………….۱۳
۲.۴. Ideology and Power ……………..………………………………….۱۵
۲.۵. Translation and Power………………………………………………۱۸
۲.۶. Impact of Translation on Representation……………………………۲۱
۲.۷. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress on CDA….…………………..…۲۳
۲.۸. Norman Fairclough on CDA………………………………………..۲۸
۲.۹ Tenn Adrianus Van Dijk on CDA…………………………………..۳۲
۲.۱۰. Farzaneh Farahzad on CDA………………………………………۳۶
۲.۱۰.۱ Microlevel ……………………………………………………۳۷
۲.۱۰.۱.۱ Vocabulary………………………………………………۳۷
۲.۱۰.۱.۲ Grammar…………………………………………………۳۸
۲.۱۰.۱.۳ Multimodal Elements……………………………………۴۰
۲.۱۰.۱.۳.۱Multimodal Discourse Analysis……………………۴۰
۲.۱۰.۲. Macrolevel……….………………………………………………………۴۱
Methodology
۳.۱. Introduction………………………………………………………………۴۴
۳.۲. Restatement of Research Questions………………………………..۴۴
۳.۳. Type of Research …………………….…………………………….۴۵
۳.۴. Corpus ………………………………………………………………۴۵
۳.۵. Procedure …………………………………………………………..۴۵
۳.۵.۱. Data Collection ………………..………………………………۴۶
۳.۵.۲. Instrument and Data Analysis……….……………………….۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱Microlevel………………………………………………………..۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۱. Vocabulary…………………………………………۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۲. Grammar……………………………………………۴۷
۳.۵.۲.۱.۳. Analyzing the Cover pages…………………………۴۸
۳.۶.۱.۳.۱. Method of Analyzing Cover pages………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲. Macrolevel………………………………………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲.۱. Analyzing Translators’ Judgments…………………۴۸
۳.۵.۲.۲.۲. Translation Strategies………………………………۴۹
۳.۵.۳. Data Sheet……………………………………………………..۴۹
Results and Discussions
۴.۱ Overview ………………………………………………….۵۲
۴.۲ Microlevel Analysis…………………………………………………۵۲
۴.۲.۱ Vocabulary……………………………………………………..۵۳
۴.۲.۲. Grammar………………………………………………………۵۴
۴.۲.۲.۱ Passive Transformation……………………………………۵۷
۴.۲.۳. Cover page Analysis ………………………………………….۵۸
۴.۲.۳.۱ Analyzing the Cover Page of “Killing Hope, US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II”…………………………….۵۹
۴.۲.۳.۲. Analyzing the Cover Page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” …………………………………۶۲
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………۶۴
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”……………………………………..۶۶
۴.۳. Macrolevel……………………………..……………………………۶۸
۴.۳.۱. Translator’s Judgments…………………………….………….۶۸
۴.۳.۲. Translation strategies………………………………..…………۷۲
۴.۳.۲.۱ ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”…………………………………………………………………………۷۲
۴.۳.۲.۱.۱ Omission Strategy……………………………………۷۴
۴.۳.۲.۱.۲ Substitution/ Alteration strategies…………………..۷۷
۴.۳.۲.۱.۳ Explicitation…………………………………………۸۴
۴.۳.۲.۱.۴ Mistranslation Strategy………………………………۸۶
۴.۳.۲.۱.۵ Addition Strategy……………………………………۸۷
۴.۳.۲.۱.۶ Undertranslation Strategy……………………………۸۹
۴.۳.۲.۲ “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………………………………………..…۹۰
۴.۳.۲.۲.۱ Omission Strategy……………………………………۹۱
۴.۳.۲.۲.۲ Substitution/ Alteration Strategies……………….…۹۷
۴.۳.۲.۲.۳ Explicitation Strategy………………………………۱۰۷
۴.۳.۲.۲.۴ Addition Strategy………………………………..…۱۰۹
۴.۳.۲.۲.۵ Undertranslation Strategy………………………….۱۱۳
Conclusion
۵.۱ Introduction…………………………………………………….….۱۱۶
۵.۲ Conclusion…………………………………………………..……..۱۱۷
۵.۳ Pedagogical Implications………………………………………..…۱۱۸
۵.۴ Suggestion for Further Research…………………………………..۱۱۹
Bibliograghy………………………………………………….………۱۲۰

List of Tables and Images
Tables:
Table 3.1 sample of verb tables………………………………………….۴۹
Table 3.2 sample of strategy tables……………………………………..۵۰
Table 3.3 sample of each case’s table………………………………..….۵۱
Table 4.1 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سا
ز
مان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد………………………………………………………………………..۵۶
Table 4.2 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه…………………………………………………۶۱
Table 4.3 strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” ……………۷۳
Table4.4 …………………………………………………………………۷۴
Table 4.5…………………………………………………………………۷۴
Table 4.6…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.7…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.8…………………………………………………………………۷۵
Table 4.9…………………………………………………………………۷۶
Table 4.10……………………………………………………………….۷۷
Table 4.11……………………………………………………………….۷۷
Table 4.12……………………………………………………………….۷۸
Table 4.13……………………………………………………………….۷۹
Table 4.14……………………………………………………………….۷۹
Table 4.15……………………………………………………………….۸۰
Table 4.16……………………………………………………………….۸۰
Table 4.17……………………………………………………………….۸۱
Table 4.18……………………………………………………………….۸۱
Table 4.19……………………………………………………………….۸۲
Table 4.20……………………………………………………………….۸۲
Table 4.21……………………………………………………………….۸۳
Table 4.22……………………………………………………………….۸۴
Table 4.23……………………………………………………………….۸۴
Table 4.24……………………………………………………………….۸۵
Table 4.25……………………………………………………………….۸۶
Table 4.26……………………………………………………………….۸۶
Table 4.27……………………………………………………………….۸۷
Table 4.28……………………………………………………………….۸۸
Table 4.29……………………………………………………………….۸۸
Table 4.30……………………………………………………………….۸۹
Table 4.31……………………………………………………………….۹۰
Table 4.32……………………………………………………………….۹۱
Table 4.33……………………………………………………………….۹۲
Table 4.34……………………………………………………………….۹۲
Table 4.35……………………………………………………………….۹۳
Table 4.36……………………………………………………………….۹۶
Table 4.37……………………………………………………………….۹۶
Table 4.38……………………………………………………………….۹۷
Table 4.39……………………………………………………………….۹۸
Table 4.40……………………………………………………………….۹۹
Table 4.41……………………………………………………………….۹۹
Table 4.42………………………………………………………………۱۰۰
Table 4.43………………………………………………………………۱۰۰
Table 4.44………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.45………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.46………………………………………………………………۱۰۱
Table 4.47………………………………………………………………۱۰۲
Table 4.48………………………………………………………………۱۰۲
Table 4.49………………………………………………………………۱۰۳
Table 4.50………………………………………………………………۱۰۳
Table 4.51………………………………………………………………۱۰۴
Table 4.52………………………………………………………………۱۰۴
Table 4.53………………………………………………………………۱۰۵
Table 4.54………………………………………………………………۱۰۵
Table 4.55………………………………………………………………۱۰۶
Table 4.56………………………………………………………………۱۰۶
Table 4.57………………………………………………………………۱۰۷
Table 4.58………………………………………………………………۱۰۸
Table 4.59………………………………………………………………۱۰۸
Table 4.60………………………………………………………………۱۰۹
Table 4.61………………………………………………………………۱۰۹
Table 4.62………………………………………………………………۱۱۰
Table 4.63………………………………………………………………۱۱۰
Table 4.64………………………………………………………………۱۱۱
Table 4.65………………………………………………………………۱۱۱
Table 4.66………………………………………………………………۱۱۳
Table 4.67………………………………………………………………۱۱۳
Table 4.68………………………………………………………………۱۱۴
Table 4.69………………………………………………………………۱۱۴
Images
Image 4.1 cover page of “Killing Hope”………………………………..۵۹
Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”………………………………….۶۲
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”………………………..۶۴
Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”………………………………۶۶

List of Abbreviations:
CDA: Critical Discourse Analysis
CL: Critical Linguistics
ST: Source Text
TS: Translation Studies
TT: Target Text

CHAPTER I
Introduction

۱.۱ General Overview
Translation has been practiced from the very beginning of the human history. In Perez’s words “it is as old as human kind”(2003: 10). Translation has also been discussed from various viewpoints such as linguistic, philosophical, social, and many more. The reason is that the act of translation is involved in more than language and it always takes place in the cultural and political systems and in the history.
Translation studies (TS) owes its development more than anything else to James S. Holmes whose prominent essay, ”
the name and nature of translation studies” , was lectured at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics in Copenhagen in 1972 (Monday 2001: 10). Since then many aspects of translation, from linguistic to hermeneutic, to philosophical and political have been continually scrutinized. Although most of the first attempts focused on linguistic aspects as the only way to investigate translation, nowadays there are many more tools at hand for researchers to conduct their investigations on the phenomenon of translation. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), which tries ” to read the traces and effects of power in language and discourse, in text and syntax’ (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 153) is one of these tools.
Perez reflects the idea of CDA scholars when states ” all language use is ideological” (2003: 4), and since translation, as a linguistic and social phenomenon, is carried out on language use it can be a manifestation of ideological encounters too. It is worth mentioning in passing that Fairclough believes (1995: 7) discourse is defined as language use in social practices. On the other hand, Fawcett (1998) demonstrates that ”translation, simply because of its existence, has always been ideological” (cited in Perez, 2003: 107).
Translation has been discussed from social and philosophical viewpoints too. In this regard, translation as a ”representation” of another text and a way through which texts are distributed is in need of more investigation. Simon believes “with the cultural turn in translation studies we can now define translation as the dynamics of culture representation” or “as a tangible representation of a secondary or mediated relationship to reality” (1996: 137). Niranjana, a postcolonial writer, in her seminal book Sitting Translation (1992: 10) argues that colonial forces have used translation as a tool to misrepresent oriental colonized subjects and cultures. This point confirms the profound impact of translation on culture.
۱.۲ statement of

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ایالات متحده آمریکا

friendliness to the text which shows Tibetans brought to Colorado consider it as their homeland which bears a closer sense of affability than the word Tibet used by the translator. Since these people were taken there to be trained to take part paramilitary groups later, the translator used substitution strategy in using a less friendly word to show he is not sympathizing with them unlike the writer.

Table 4.11
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China.” (p.25)
Target Text
” چینیها تلاش فراوان به خرج دادند که ادعاهایشان را مبنی بر اینکه ایالات متحده آمریکا،…، مقادیر هنگفتی میکروب…، ثابت کنند.” (ص. ۲۸)

In the above paragraph the word the author used is “publicizing” which is different from “proving” which the translator used by alteration. The first has a lower effect than the latter. Also the writer used “quantities” not “massive quantities” added by the translator which once again is employed to represent the enormity of the situation.
Table 4.12
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
a Tudeh-sponsored demonstration was brutally suppressed by Mossadegh, resulting in some 100 deaths and 500 injured.” (p. 65)
Target Text
“تظاهراتی که حزب توده ترتیب داده بود به کشته شدن ۲۰ نفر و زخمی شدن ۵۰۰ نفر انجامید.” (ص. ۱۳۸)

What is mentioned in the original text is totally altered by the translator. In the original text it is obvious that Mosaddegh was partly responsible for the deaths of 100 people while in the target text there is no sign of Mosaddegh’s name in the text, moreover the number of people killed in the demonstration is mentioned as 20 which is one fifth of the source text. Also in translation the subject is demonstrated in a way that it is possible to consider that the people who are killed are from both sides while in the ST they are victimized by Mosaddegh. In aspect of technique used here this is kind of alteration and selection of a part from a whole.
Table 4.13
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“the proverbial communist takeover”(p. 64)
Target Text
” روی کار آمدن کمونیستهای تودهای”(ص. ۱۳۵)

The “proverbial” is used “when you describe something using part of a well-known expression”. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) so the translator by using substitution technique used the familiar term “The Tudeh” instead of “proverbial” to give specific information about a branch of communism in Iran which is known to everyone. In this way he could establish a better relation with the reader.
Table 4.14
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The various accounts of the CIA role in Iran have the Agency spending from $10,000 to $19 million to overthrow Mossadegh.” (p. 68)
Target Text
“… سازمان مبلغی بین ۱۰۰۰۰۰ تا ۱۹ میلیون دلار صرف براندازی مصدق کرد.” (ص. ۱۴۳)
The amount of money spent to overthrow Mosaddegh announced by CIA agents in the original text varies from $10,000 to $19 million but $10,000 in the ST is altered to $100,000 in the translated text. The reason is that the translator considers that the variation of numbers between $100,000 and $19 million is more reasonable than between $10,000 and $19 million. So in his view it is not logical that all the money has been spent on toppling a Prime Minister down equals to $10,000.
Table 4.15
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Love’s views, contained in a paper he wrote in 1960, may well have been inspired by information received from the CIA.” (p. 69)
Target Text
“احتمال میرود نظریهی لاو، در کتابی که در ۱۹۶۰ منتشر ساخت، …” (ص. ۱۴۵)

It goes without saying that a paper in aspect of the amount of material it is covering is smaller than a book. Also usually a book’s value is higher than a paper’s. Bearing that in mind, the translator substituted “a paper” in the ST with “a book” in the TT to show that the amount of information that has been released against CIA by Love is more than it is mentioned in reality. Since this information is related to the interference of USA in other countries, the more the better.
Table 4.16
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Though sponsored by the Tudeh” (p. 69)
Target Text
“تظاهرات یاد شده را [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] جبههی ملی ترتیب داده بود” (ص. ۱۴۶)

The translator used two strategies in the above mentioned translation. Instead of “The Tudeh” in the ST he used ” “جبههی ملیor “National Front Party” in the TT which is a total substitution and also he employed explicitation in [به مناسبت سالروز ۳۰ تیر] or (aniiversary of 30th of Tir) to bring the demonstration closer to the mind of the Iranian Readers. Since he considered “National Front Party” more in line with the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran than “The Tudeh” and he deemed if there is a demonstration it is more appropriate for “National Front Party” to lead it, used it over “The Tudeh”.
Table 4.17
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“When to this is added a level of corruption that “startled even the most hardened observers of Middle Eastern thievery” (p. 71)
Target Text
“…. حتی پوستکلفتترین دزدان خاورمیانه را به شگفت میانداخت”(ص. ۱۵۱)

In the original text the word “observers” means the people who were watching closely the Middle Eastern thievery. In the translated text this word is changed to “thieves”. This substitution is employed to enlarge the magnitude of corruption in Iran to the extent that even thieves themselves are bewildered by that.

Table 4.18
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The payments to the ayatollahs and mullahs began in 1953 and continued regularly until 1977 when President Carter abruptly halted them.” (p. 71)
Target Text
“پرداخت پول به روحانینمایان …” (ص. ۱۵۲)

In the original text it is mentioned that CIA was bribing some “ayatollahs and mullahs” to give speech in favor of the USA. But in the translation the translator called them “fake clergymen”. This alteration by the translator is because Iran unlike many other countries is a country that clergymen take political roles in managing the country; this is to the extent that based on Iran’s Constitutional Law the person who is leading the country should be an ayatollah. For the reasons mentioned above, clergymen and ayatollahs are respected in Iran and the translator does not want to taint their titles by bribery.
Table 4.19
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The cut-off of funds to the holy men, it is believed, was one of the elements

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جنگ جهانی دوم

چندان مبسوط آمده است.
– البته تمامی مطالب کتاب با واقعیتهای جهانی همخوانی ندارد و نظرات و قضاوتهای نویسنده نیز دربارهی تمامی گروهها و نظامهای حاکم بر کشورهای مختلف کاملا صادق نیست.
Show that although the Center of Islamic Republic Documents appreciates the view of the writer and his work, they are not in agreement with all the matters went on in the book. They believe that since Iran played a vital role in not only the Middle East but also over the globe dealing with matters related to Iran must have been more in depth and length.
In the preface of the book “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” written by Stephen Kinzer who is a veteran New York Times correspondent and has reported from more than fifty countries on five continents we are facing someone who is in the US context and is trying to elaborate on the matter why the outlook of people outside the borders of the US is gloomy toward America. Looking at the following sentence which are told by an Iranian woman, we figure out the main mission of Kinzer’s writing this book is to go into the detail of the reasons why other countries mistrust the USA, so that this would never happen in the future and America would gain the trust of other nations back and become the godfather everyone expects.
“Why did you Americans do that terrible thing?” she cried out. “We always loved America. To us, America was the great country, the perfect country, the country that helped us while other countries were exploiting us. But after that moment, no one in Iran ever trusted the United States again. I can tell you for sure that if you had not done that thing, you would never have had that problem of hostages being taken in your embassy in Tehran. All your trouble started in 1953.Why, why did you do it?”
Moreover in one paragraph of the preface kinzer uses the word “Theocracy” to refer to the newborn Iranian government which was elected in a public election as Islamic Republic of Iran and takes for granted that this government uses “terrorism” as its weapon to control the country. The sentences are as follows:
”In Iran, almost everyone has for decades known that the United States was responsible for putting an end to democratic rules in 1953 and installing what became the long dictatorship of Mohammad Reza Shah. His dictatorship produced the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which brought to power a passionately anti-American theocracy that embraced terrorism as a tool of statecraft. Its radicalism inspired anti-Western fanatics in many countries, most notably Afghanistan, where al-Qaeda and other terror groups found homes and bases.”
On the other hand Shahryar Khavajian, the translator of the book ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه” although respects the idea of the writer of the book to some extent, he is not after reclaiming the lost reputation of the USA as kinzer is. Khavajian as an Iranian does not believe in the reasons Americans standing upon to force the Coup to Iranians. Americans claim that they arranged the Coup in Iran just because the danger of communism and the Soviet Union was threatening Iran. Khavajian says “if the Soviet Union had been going to attack Iran and had had the power to do so, it would have happened after withdrawal of American and British soldiers from Iran when still Stalin was in power.”
Another point is that kinzer mentions in different parts of his book, specifically, the back of the cover page of the translated book that what USA had done 60 years ago ignited a flame, in that America is still burning. One of those flares coming out of the flame of American Coup in Iran, he claims, is Iran’s revolution which if it had not been for the Coup it would not had happened and Americans would not have had such problems they are facing now. On page 203 of his book he mentions the above mentioned ideas as this:
“With their devotion to radical Islam and their eagerness to embrace even the most horrific kinds of violence, Iran’s revolutionary leaders became heroes to fanatics in many countries. Among those who were inspired by their example were Afghans who founded the Taliban, led it to power in Kabul, and gave Osama bin-Laden the base from which he launched devastating terror attacks. It is not far-fetched to draw a line from Operation Ajax through the Shah’s repressive regime and the Islamic Revolution to the fireballs that engulfed the World Trade Center in New York.”
What he mentioned above bears two sides. One is informing Americans of why hatred around the globe toward them is growing and why they are suffering from terrorism so much. Another side of the coin is that America has done a bad deed once 60 years ago in a corner of the world, and Americans are still suffering from it. Looking upon the matter in this perspective brings pity for Americans. The latter view also takes for granted that whatever is happening to the USA is on behalf of Islamic extremists, at the top of them Iranians. Nonetheless, it has not yet been indicated that one who was behind the attack to the World Trade Center.
This showed that the translation aimed at showing that America was a false pretender of democracy and human rights. While the author’s objective, as stated in the preface and specifically the last parts of the book, was to show that the Coup in Iran in spite of America’s direct meddling was the cause of later side-effects.
۴.۳.۲ Translation Strategies
By analyzing the strategies applied in the translation of these two books, it became clear that in both سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی” دوم به بعد” and همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”” the translation strategies were applied purposefully and ideologically. The justification of choosing each strategy is brought after each case. In the following the strategies the translators, Khavvajian and Hooshang Mahdavi, employed to apply their ideologies to the TT are brought in length and in short (in tables 4.3 & 4.31).

۴.۳.۲.۱ ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”

In the translation of the ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” different strategies such as omission, addition or over-wording, mistranslation, under-translation, substitution or alteration, and explicitation were applied. Since the organization behind the translation of this book, “”مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی, is supported directly by the government, the strategies were applied consciously by the translator to fulfill the expectation of the mentioned organization or his own beliefs. The number and percentage of each strategy is depicted in table 4.1 below.

Table 4.3- strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”
Strategies Applied in Translation of Killing Hope
Number
Percentage %
Omission
۶
۲۲
Substitution/Alteration
۱۲
۴۴
Explicitation
۴
۱۵
Mistranslation
۱
۴
Addition
۳
۱۱
Undertranslation
۱
۴
Borrowing
۰
۰
Calque
۰
۰
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
۰
۰
Selection of Parts From Wholes
۰
۰
Total Number of Strategies
۲۷
۱۰۰

Here come the cases on which the investigation of translation strategies has taken place and divided based on each strategy:

۴.۳.۲.۱.۱ Omission Strategy
Table 4.4Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“After completing training, each group of Tibetans was flown to Taiwan or another friendly Asian country, …” (p.25)
Target Text
“… به تایوان یا کشور آسیایی دیگری گسیل میشدند … ” (ص. ۲۸)

The translator did not use “friendly Asian country” because to the country of the author -USA- may some Asian countries be friendly which in the eye of the translator’s country -Iran- they are not considered as allies. In this regard he used omission strategy to fulfill the ideology he believes in.
Table 4.5
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the Iranian Communist Party (The Tudeh)” (p.65)
Target Text
“حزب کمونیست توده”(ص. ۱۳۶)

By omitting the word “Iranian” consciously or unconsciously, being under the influence of Islam, the translator avoids mentioning that “The Tudeh” party was also part of Iranian history. So somehow he is trying to purify the name of his country from the Communist ideology.
Table 4.6
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“[Mosaddegh] had appointed some Tudeh sympathizers to government posts.” (p.66)
Target Text

The above sentence from the ST is totally omitted from the TT may be because Mosaddegh was a national figure and did really important measures for his country the translator did not want to mention that he had communist inclinations.
Table 4.7
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the “The notorious Iranian secret police, SAVAK, created under the guidance of the
CIA and Israel,…” (p. 71)
Target Text
“ساواک پلیس امنیت بدنام ایران که به راهنمایی موساد اسراییل تاسیس شد،…” (ص. ۱۵۱)
In the translated text two strategies are employed by the translator: explicitation and deletion. The translator used “Israel” next to “Mossad” to highlight Israel’s role in training notorious SAVAK agents. Also he deleted “CIA” from the translated text to magnify the role of “Israel” which is Iran’s number one enemy. Since the Israeli forces occupied Palestine, Iran does not even recognize them as a country.
Table 4.8
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“it [Syria] was the only state in the area to refuse all US economic or military assistance.” (p.85)

Target Text
“]سوریه[ تنها کشور منطقه به شمار میآمد که کمک نظامی آمریکا را نپذیرفته بود.” (ص. ۱۸۱)

Omitting the term “economic” by the translator represents the fact that he is trying to induce that American help can only cover military part and this country is always after military interference.
Table 4.9
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the United States is prepared to use armed forces to assist any Middle East country requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism”. (p. 89)
Target Text
“ایالات متحده برای حفظ تمامیت ارضی و استقلال سیاسی ملتهایی که برای مقابله با تجاوز آشکار مسلحانهی کشورهای زیر نفوذ کمونیسم بینالمللی چنین کمکی را تقاضا کنند، قوای مسلح خود را به کار خواهد برد.”(ص. ۱۹۲)

As it is obvious above there is no sign of Middle East in the translation. By deleting Middle East from the translation, the translator indicates that the US army is going to interfere everywhere over the globe.

۴.۳.۲.۱.۲ Substitution/ Alteration strategies
Table 4.10
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“An altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland”(p. 25)

Target Text
“ارتفاع آن شبیه تبت بود”(ص. ۲۸)

By using the adjective “mountainous” and the word ”homeland” instead of Tibet itself the writer brings a sense of

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جنگ جهانی دوم

sample of strategy tables
Strategies Applied in the Books
Number
Percentage %
Omission

Substitution/Alteration

Explicitation

Mistranslation

Addition

Undertranslation

Borrowing

Calque

Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements

Selection of Parts From Wholes

Total Number of Strategies

The third type of the tables were employed to manifest each case and its translation separately along with the strategy used in it.

Table 3.3- sample of each case’s table
Translation Strategy

Source Text

Target Text

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

۴.۱. Overview

In the present chapter, each book specified in the corpus will be analyzed separately in a comparative study at the three levels of textual, paratextual and semiotic suggested by Farahzad (2007). At the textual level, the in-text strategies used by the translator in translation of the selected text from each book are analyzed for determining their ideological significance. At the paratextual level, any available footnote, endnote, foreword or introduction is analyzed. At the semiotic level, the cover image as well as any pictures or figures are analyzed for determining the ideological value and alignment with the dominant ideologies in Iran. These levels were carried out separately on the selected corpus element.

۴.۲ Microlevel Analysis

۴.۲.۱ Vocabulary

Regarding vocabulary in this research one question had been examined:

• Are there any words and expressions used in the metatext which are ideologically significant? What role do they play in their corresponding TT?

Concerning the book ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” this research took the word America and any other word which directly or indirectly was related to the USA as a key term, words like US, USA, Washington, George Bush and so on. The reason was that these words had an ideological importance in the target culture and the content of both books directly revolved around these terms. These words were repeated altogether 2127 times in the Source Text and 3320 times in the Target Text (Table 4.1). This showed that the ‘USA’ and all words and pronouns directly related to it had become more visible in the translated text. This became more important when some more data were collected to show the grammatical roll of these ‘USA-related words’. This is elaborated later in the research.

Considering the book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” two key words of ”USA” and all the words in relation to this word and also ”Britain” and all the words pertinent to it was considered to be investigated. This is because this book was totally dedicated to describe the pivotal role of the USA and Britain in overthrowing Mohammad Mosaddegh. The first key term (USA) was repeated 326 times in the source text and 372 times in the Target text. Repeating the word Britain and its related words 493 times in the source text depicts the role of Britain even stronger than America in the 1953 Coup in Iran which burned fifty years of effort to reach democracy into ashes. This word was repeated 562 times in the target text (table 4.2). Both key terms and the words related to them were repeated more than the times in the TT which illustrates that they become more visible in the eye of the translator.
۴.۲.۲ Grammar
In the second level of this research the grammar of the texts was scrutinized. This thesis focused on process types and agency and the voice of sentences to see whether they were active or passive. The questions in this regard were:

• What kinds of processes predominate in the ST and TT? Is agency unclear?
• How much percent of the sentences are active or passive in the Persian and English texts?

To find the answer to the first question, what was mentioned earlier in chapter two from Kress and Hodge about processes had been taken into consideration. Shortly, they categorize processes into two types: ”actionals” and “relationals”. Actionals are those verbs which indicate the actions. Relationals on the other hand are used to classify and attribute adjectives (1996: 39).

The corpus element selected from ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” contained 4483 verbs. 3868 Verbs were actionals and 615 were relationals. This gave an impression that the text emphasized more on actions rather than relations. The text was more in motion and it showed some processes were actually happening; rather than mere a description of a status.
On the other hand, in the TT there were 5014 verbs which 4179 of them were actionals and 835 relationals. This indicated that our TT was involved more in actions regarding the source text and actions had gained more emphasis. With this, the concept of agents became even more important to pay attention to (Table 4.1).
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 2127 uses of such words in the ST and 3320 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 1420 times while in the Target Text this became 1920(Table 4.1).this indicates that in the TT America was more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was criticizing the USA for its actions it became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the USA’s shoulders and had let the readers to blame US more easily.
Regarding the selected parts from the second book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” there were 4750 verbs on the whole in the source corpus, 840 of which relationals, 3910 and actionals.
This showed again that this text dealt more with actions rather than relations and attributions. Moreover in the TT there were 5420 verbs. 3960 Of them were actionals and 1460 were relationals (Table 4.2). The TT tended to actions rather than relations too. As it had been said most of the agents in both TT and ST were somehow related to America. So once again it became clear that in the TT the USA became more responsible for actions and as they were more related to abuses of power and evil deeds, the US more deserved to be blamed and condemned by readers.
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 326 uses of such words in the ST and 372 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 216 times while in the Target Text this became 248; moreover, the term Britain and its related words were repeated 493 times in the ST while they were repeated 562 times in the TT. In the ST these words played roles as direct agents for 388 times while the same words in the TT were appeared 412 times as direct agents (Table 4.2). This depicts that in the TT USA and Britain were more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was based on the fact that these two countries were directly responsible for the Coup to oust Mosaddegh in Iran It became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the shoulders of USA and Britain and had let the readers blame them more easily.

Table 4.1- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, U
S
military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد
KILLING HOPE
ST
TT
Total Verbs
۴۴۸۳
۵۰۱۴
Actionals
۳۸۶۸
۴۱۷۹
Relationals
۶۱۵
۸۳۵
Passives
۵۸۴
۶۵۲
Total USA Related Usage
۲۱۲۷
۳۳۲۰
USA as Direct Agent
۱۴۲۰
۱۹۲۰
۴.۲.۲.۱ Passive Transformation

In ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” there were 584 passives which comparing the 4483 processes, had not been that important (around 12 percent). This showed that the writer had revealed causality process in his sentences and had avoided mystification. This was, by some means, in line with the critical tone of the writer who had investigated ”US military and CIA interventions since World War II”. In the target text, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”, there were 652 passives out of 5014 processes (around 12 percent). Again this showed the translator had not radically changed the voices of the verbs, regarding the total number of the processes in Persian. The translator, also, wanted the agents to be clear because through this technique the critical and denouncing positioning of the translator towards the USA became more unambiguous.
In the second book, “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”, the same trend was obvious There were 260 passives out of 4750 processes (about 6 percent of the total amount). In the translated text there were 180 passives out of 5420 processes (around 2 percent). These numbers showed that both the translator and author had chosen the anti-mystification strategy to show what the United States was performing in its ongoing relations with the rest of the world. But a delicate difference was evident in this book and its corresponding translation regarding the former book, i.e. passives had reduced by around 4 percents in the TT. It was already mentioned that the second book was entirely dedicated to show what America and Britain had done and were doing in their ongoing deeds inside and outside their borders and the majority of ‘agents’ directly or indirectly referred to the USA and Britain or their administrative institutions like CIA and MI6. By decreasing the number of passives, once again the USA and Britain became more responsible for its actions and evilness in the TT.
Unlike the author whose context was US community and may have taken some matters into considerations by not talking more vividly the translator was in a totally different context. He did not feel any problem to reveal whatever was regarded as bad deeds against America and Britain so they had used active mode more generously instead of passives.

۴.۲.۳ Cover page Analysis

۴.۲.۳.۱ Analyzing the cover-page of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”
Image 4.1- cover page of “Killing Hope”

Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: one fighter→ action: military power
– Background: a distant view over the earth → action: victimize
Typography title: – Up: William Blum, AUTHOR OF ROGUE STATE
– Middle: all in capital: KILLING HOPE
– Down: US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II

The aircraft in the multimodal text (image 4.1), i.e. cover page, was a

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جنگ جهانی دوم، کودتای ۲۸ مرداد

spy aircraft which could be regarded as the characteristic of American military power and its hegemony over the world; so it symbolizes power. It is black which can be a sign for suffocating hegemony of the USA after World War II over most part of the world and the black color is also aligned with the title of the book- Killing Hope. The fighter covers to the extent of 80 percent of the cover page foreground and the rest which is a-twenty-percent background shows a distant view of the earth. This devotion (80&20) by itself can illustrate that US has a large proportion of the earth under its power. The direction of the fighter represents the liveliness and the presence of the power.
On the whole, the composition of the elements of the cover page represented some kinds of power interrelated with lack of hope.
The USA, which fought in the name of peace and war with terrorism. Actually the USA, which shouts democracy and “hope” for every nation in the world now, is brought under the question of all he proclaims with the terms used in the title of the book, ”Killing Hope”. The USA which is supposed to bring ”hope” to nations is now killing it.
The blue color of the earth at the background symbolizes tranquility and peace. This might suggest to an observant viewer the USA’s fighting in the name of peace.
The large font of the main title and also that it is written all in capital makes it to become closer to the viewer and became the most dominant element in the cover page and hence might make the viewer more engaged in the idea behind the title. Moreover, the color of the letters is white which is supposed to represent peace but ironically the word “killing” is written in it. The words “US military & CIA” which are supposed to protect human rights and nation rights are also written in white along with “interventions” which brings a total paradox to the ground.

Table 4.2- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه
ALL THE SHAH’S MEN
ST
TT
Total Verbs
۴۷۵۰
۵۴۲۰
Actionals
۳۹۱۰
۳۹۶۰
Relationals
۸۴۰
۱۴۶۰
Passives
۲۶۰
۱۸۰
Total USA Related Usage
۳۲۶
۳۷۲
USA as a Direct Agent
۲۱۶
۲۴۸
Total Britain Related Usage
۴۹۳
۵۶۲
Britain as a Direct Agent
۳۸۸
۴۱۲

۴.۲.۳.۲ Analyzing the cover page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”

Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”

Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: an American soldier holding an M16 in hand → action: military power
– Background: a twilight → action: despair and wane
Typography title: – Down: ”ویلیام بلوم” in black and red
“مترجم: دکتر عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی” in white
” سرکوب امید” in a large white font
“(دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد)” in a small white font
” مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی” in a small white font
The US soldier holding an M16 standing at the foreground colored all black because he is standing between the viewer and the last remaining of the sunlight. The color of the soldier’s photo matches the color of the fighter on the cover of the original book. They both represent military power along with despair. The part that specifically covers the sun is the gun which without it the sunlight could reach the viewer. The diagonal position of the barrel of the gun can represent uncertainty of the soldier holding it or at least not being ready shoot. The twilight at the background can represent the last remaining hope to reach peace and freedom for those under the exploitation of the USA which without US military power reaching it is possible. Twilight along with the diagonal position of the gun can also symbolize the power of the USA on the wane. More than half of the page is colored red which brings to the mind of the viewer the color of blood which unlike the background color in the original book (blue) causes dread and insecurity.
The title of the book like the one in the original book is written in white and large font to bring the idea behind the topic closer to the viewer. The same paradox between the content of the title which is despair and the color of the letters which is white can be found in both the original and the translated books.
There are different types of fonts in Persian language but the one is selected here is more rigid than the regular smooth and flexible ones to demonstrate toughness of the idea behind it.
۴.۲.۳.۳ Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street→ action: demonstration
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
Typography title: – Up: all in capital: All THE SHAH’S MEN
– Middle: all in capital: AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR
– Down: all in capital: STEPHEN KINZER
The photo that is covering half of the page seems to be taken from a group of people at the time of the Coup in Iran. The garlands around the pictures of the Shahs show these people are supporting the Shah. Since there were two groups at the time of the Coup: one supporting Mosaddegh, another supporting the Shah, the cover page seems to have lost one of them. In the middle of the page the “AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR” is written in red that is a proper choice because red brings blood and danger into the mind of the reader. Also the middle text like all letters on the cover is written in capital to enlarge the vastness of American crimes. At the top there is nothing but half a page in white which All THE SHAH’S MEN is written on it in large font and in black. Using black on white background at the top somehow represents the blackness of The Shah and “all the Shah’s men” ‘s character over the whiteness of pure Iran and the capitalization of the letters tries to magnify this blackness.

۴.۲.۳.۴ Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”

Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”
Elements: images & words

Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street → action: demonstration.
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
– Up: a stamp of the Shah Mohammadreza → action:
Typography title: – Up: in black and large font: همهی مردان شاه and in smaller font and black under it کودتای آمریکایی ۲۸ مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاورمیانه
– Middle: written in white on a red background استیفن کینزر and under it ترجمه شهریار خواجیان
Since both the original and the translated book share the same image that covers half of the page what has been mentioned about the image of the cover page in the original book can be applied here as well; thoug
h,
there is a slight change at the top of the cover page. The color of the cover page at the top is gray that connotes ambiguity and vagueness and it also foreshadows blackness. It does not resemble the cover page of the ST that is black and white at the top. The stamp of the Shah nearly in the middle of the cover page and its position is of great importance. Using someone’s photo on a stamp represents permanence and stability. The Shah is wearing military uniform on the stamp which represents power at the same time the position of the stamp on the cover page is not upright which is demonstrating instability of Shah’s position in the country which can be an answer to those protecting The Shah in the image at the bottom of the page. Since the translator could not bring another image to represent both parties: those demonstrating for The Shah and those demonstrating for Mosaddegh, he employed the stamp to represent the latter party. Considering what has been mentioned so far, the cover page of the TT seems to encompass both parties, rather than the cover page of the TT which encompassed one of the two parties.

۴.۳ Macrolevel Analysis

۴.۳.۱ Translators’ judgments

At this level of investigation the translators’ judgments was scrutinized. The traces of translators’ ideological viewpoints could be found in preface to translations, footnotes, and endnotes thereof.
William Blum, the author of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” was a member of the Western community. The title he chose for his book at the first step suggested that there were some people out there whose hope is being killed by US military and CIA which at this level might include the Americans, the country or the states of the US. In this regard he is a political critic who describes the interventions of the USA in other countries in his book, briefly. The reason why he criticized US policy is different from that of the Iranian translator, because he is part of the Western culture. This meant that the Function of the texts in the receiver’s culture was different from that of the source culture. The author wrote the book not because he hated America or wanted to damage his own country but because he thinks in this way he is serving his country in a reformist manner.
On the other hand, the translated book was published in Iran which considered the USA as its most dangerous foe. America is the ‘great devil’ for Iranian official policy developers. In this different context the book’s function had changed to some extent. The TT did not have a constructive role as the original one but it followed a destructive role to darken the picture of the ‘greatest enemy’. Here the book and its translator were located in the culture of those people who might hate America, not that of ‘America’ which is the subject of hatred and that of the authors.
In the preface to the translated book which is published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” the Center of Islamic Republic Documents, one of the governmental dependant organizations, in Iran there are some statements like:
– زیادهخواهی آمریکاییان در سایر کشورها
– سیاهکاریهای ایالات متحده در ایران
– غارت ثروت ملی ایران
Which show the gravity of hatred from the perspective of the translator and the Center of Islamic Republic Documents which published the book and it is a representative of Iranian government. Moreover, sentences like:
– نویسنده به اوضاع داخلی کشورمان در عصر پهلوی و حمایتهای آمریکا از بزرگترین دیکتاتور منطقه بسیار کمتر پرداخته و فقط به مقتضای بحث در بخشهای مختلف کتاب به آن اشاره میکند.
– وقایع دوران نهضت ملی و چگونگی اجرای کودتای ۲۸ مرداد در بحث مستقل و نه